The issue of presence of water on mars has been a challenging question for many astronomers since 1877. “In the 1800s, human imaginations ran wild as astronomers glimpsed what they took to be canals on the Martian surface…
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Scientists pondered the possibility of life on the red planet, while artists and dreamers such as H.G. Wells took the notion even further, imagining a Martian conquest of Earth in his 1898 book "War of the Worlds."” (Doydey and Lamb). Some astronomers argue that water exists on mars planet in the form of water ice. Many scientists claim that Mars contains water because it supports life of all forms. The Mars volcanic activities that lead to freezing and melting of ice can be another example of underground water existence. Polar ice caps can exemplify water existence on Mars because of carbon dioxide ice. Therefore, volcanic activities, the existence of polar ice caps and presence of chemical compounds on the Martian surface rocks confirm water in the Mars planet. Notwithstanding that there were hundreds of investigation held, the issue is still controversial and needs further research. However, this research can be implemented only with the help of further technological achievements. The planet Mars consists of water in the form of ice. Mars planet has two polar ice caps, which are constant. The Martian pole in winter is in constant darkness and the surface is chilled. This contributes to approximately 30 percent of the atmosphere, which is in the form of carbon dioxide ice (dry ice)....
Dowdey and Lamb agree with his “Mars is replete with water, but most (if not all) of it is in frozen or vapor form. For instance, ice caps the planet's poles, and patches of ice lie over dunes in craters” (Dowdey and Lamb).The Martian surface rocks occur in high latitude areas, which are known as permafrost, which is in a freezing state below the 0°C. Most permafrost areas are located in high latitudes, and ice is not always present, but they occur due to hydraulic saturation of the bedrock materials. Water vapor is always presented in the atmosphere but the permafrost is lacking of liquid water. The present condition of the surface of many planets does no longer support the existence of water in liquid form for a longer period. This is because the atmospheric temperature is too low. In this case immediate freezing and sublimation processes occur. The research study indicates that the liquid water exists in liquid water flow on the earth’s surfaces thus creating larger surface areas for oceans or seas. There are varied proofs about the presence of water in Mars. With increased technology, the scientists are now able to use advanced cameras of Mars orbiters including the mars odyssey, global mass surveyor and reconnaissance orbiters for visual confirmation of the presence of water in the mars planet. With the help of different technical tools modern scientists are very much focused on possible effective ways of water finding on Mars. Quality of water is another important issue for their concern. Further on we will focus on different theories and hypotheses about water existence on Mars planet. NASA's charge to researchers on the mission has been simple: “Follow the water," meaning examine all aspects of water-or ice on Mars. No water
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