The human nature is just one discipline. Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Kant etc., all have given their insights about human nature but none has grasped it completely. This seems similar to the concept of God…
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Plato gave his Allegory of the Cave explaining this habitual nature (Soccio 141). A man lives all his life in a cave, he considers his environment as the only reality, as if nothing exists outside of it. On exposing him to the sunlight, this person thinks he is dreaming, that the fresh air, green grass and the singing birds are hallucinations.
The habitual nature of human is Plato’s version. Aristotle and Kant on the other hand focused more on how humans should behave; the maxim behind every action. Aristotle gave two levels of human behavior the one where he only acts as a man and the other where he acts as if there is a divine spirit within him, thus achieving a life higher than mere human nature (Aristotle 191). This is very different from Plato’s narrative because Kant implies that man by nature is evil or corrupt therefore he has to confirm to moral law in order to live a better life. He is not simply a product of its environment, he is inherently corrupt.
It is hard to pick one theory and reject the other. It will also be negating the introduction that there is no absolute truth or knowledge. In Kant’s theory there is space for spirituality. There must be divine authority overseeing man’s activities. Plato on the other hand is more supportive of nurture as opposed to the nature. Kant considers human nature as a composition of feelings, one relations and cognitions, and these aspects are governed by a priory prescribed by a “higher cognitive power” (Frierson 13)
Descartes is also in agreement with Kant that there is a divine authority. And hence man has a defined nature. René Descartess held anti-elitist and egalitarian views on human nature (Lopston 24). It also implies that considering this premise one has to accept that humans have been created as part of a grand design. The basic principles of all major religions state that divinity tests the humans against some commandments/rules, where the man has to abstain from evil and
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It therefore becomes very difficult to have a clear cut difference between Socrates philosophies and Plato’s. The Ontological dualism is one of the philosophies presented by Plato. The philosophy is simply a theory of the ideas. Ontologically speaking, the ideas herein do not only include the real objects but rather, on an epistemological speaking, they comprise authentically objects of knowledge.
I think therefore I am. That is a philosophical statement that shows Descartes’ belief in the self and his consciousness. The statement is an English translation of the Latin Cogito ergo sum. This particular statement became the foundation of the Western philosophy.
He creates a way of a utopian group, in his guide The Republic, out of his disregard for the pressure of government life. Plato preferred to cure the circumstances of both personal group and personal personality. Generally what Plato wants to accomplish is a perfect society.
He was later to be the only person to rival Plato in terms of influence on Western philosophy. Human nature was a subject that made both of them interested a lot and this essay will explore what they felt about this subject.
Though there seems to be a lot of similar ground in both their thoughts yet Aristotle later markedly differed from the views of his mentor.
This is considered the same as heresy, which Socrates was found guilty of, as heresy is a religious opinion that contradicts the beliefs and teachings of the Roman Catholic. He was an atheist and did not believe that a God, or gods, existed.
Plato was a student, or a follower, of Socrates.
Thus, the answer to the question on the extent of difference in terms of an ethical and practical ways man lead their lives can be based on the concepts and views presented by the two philosophers.
In Plato’s Allegory
Majority of critics in art and literature have not only been enthralled by Plato’s views on the ‘Republic’ but also questioned on the validity of mimesis in art. Other critics have opted to understand the
2. As Socrates explains, Euthryphro’s answer suggests only an affect or quality of being pious and not the nature of piety. Since different gods view actions differently being pious is based upon what one believes in and whose god one believes in.
In the cogito, he reflects the possibilities and facts about consciousness. The initial statement of cogito reaffirms his belief in self-existence he says, “So after considering everything very thoughtfully, I must finally conclude that this preposition, I am, I exist, is necessarily true whenever it is put forward by me or conceived by my mind”.
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