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Philosophical Beliefs Regarding Human Knowledge - Term Paper Example

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Name Institution Date Introduction: Philosophy is the study of reasoning. Reasoning represents the aspect of displaying the premises, evaluating them and through analytical tools reach a well decisive judgment. People should be advised to be philosophers as philosophy brings out and raises critical thinkers…
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Introduction: Philosophy is the study of reasoning. Reasoning represents the aspect of displaying the premises, evaluating them and through analytical tools reach a well decisive judgment. People should be advised to be philosophers as philosophy brings out and raises critical thinkers. It generally represents a level of the mind, one that allows the individual to think analytically and be able to pass well decisive decisions about various issues facing mankind and therefore, finding solutions to the various problems revolving in and around us (Copleston, 1975). Philosophy as a discipline is the art of rationalizing. Rationalizing refers to the art of analyzing on an in depth the premises laid in front of an argument. Through thorough analysis reach out on wisely chosen conclusions and further more solve problems of the community. It needs one to be a critical thinker to be a good philosopher. Critical thinkers are at the highest level of thinking (Mill, 1965). It is the highest ranking of the mind, and they are at the Post-Conventional level of thinking. They do not conform and adhere to the established way of life. They do not just merely agree on the truth that they overhear, they do not just merely follow others on the basis of mass psychology. They dispel and disagree with the existing truth, they doubt all knowledge they had previously acquired, and they find other alternatives to existing problems. They find out new ways that have not been discovered. They believe that the existing knowledge is false and prone to object and totally dispel of certain myths (Rachels, 2010). They do not conform to societal perception; they are individuals who think above society. They are able to correct society. As critical thinkers, they are able to judge others and are generally able to bring new ideas into the society. ?­ Conventional thinkers on the other hand are conformists. They go by the society, easily believe and follow others. They are very prone to malice and take up any thing as gospel truth. They don’t make the best type of leaders and are generally not adequate in the considerations for decisions or in the decision making process (Shaw, 1962). Definition of Knowledge: Knowledge from a philosophical point of view can be looked at as the art of making one’ self familiar with something or certain assumptions about life. These assumptions can include certain facts, information obtained from various sources, the various descriptive or descriptions about a certain aspect about life. Study of Knowledge according to the philosophers is generally referred to as epistemology. According to Plato a famous philosopher he identified knowledge as justified true belief (Tikhanov, 2009). Theories about Knowledge “Appearance and reality” by Bertrand Russell Bertrand Russell was a critical thinker, in fact, a philosopher who introduced the theory on Appearance and reality. This indeed was a theory the sought to put to test the validity of knowledge. Appearance and reality by Bertrand Russell had its take on philosophy with more emphasize on the contentious issue of knowledge (Wadia, 1996). Bertrand Russell’s By fact, he said that looks are very deceiving. And the knowledge we gain through site could be a subject of false. According to Bertrand Russell we gain knowledge through our various senses. The sense of touch, sight, smell and many others (Tikhanov, 2009). These signs give us some basis for acquisition of knowledge. Looking at a dirty person, the knowledge gained may be that the person is very poor but the reality may be the opposite. It is therefore on this background that the conclusion that looks are deceiving arises. It is true that what the appearance we get may be totally different from the reality established on the ground. It is therefore conscious to doubt every truth portrayed and doubt the existing myths, facts and beliefs about various issues in life (Shaw, 1962). According to Bertrand Russell Propaganda is a representation of messages containing a specific agenda. There are likelihoods for propaganda to be true or false. They influence people to thinking inline with the agenda of the propaganda. It is a tool politicians use to sway masses through opinion polls. Critical thinkers evaluate propagandas; they don’t look at the knowledge in them and doubt it by rationalizing to obtain new knowledge (Hodges, (2006). “Aristotle’s Theory of Knowledge” He advocated that all knowledge initially begins from some sense of perception. The natural kinds of issues suggested by Aristotle are in existence from the concrete things, except as the various beliefs and concepts that are inculcated in the mind of the various people. He concluded that the Sense of Perception in itself and judged as not being knowledge. He indicated that true knowledge requires understanding of the truthful essence of the things and further more the ordered and scientific comprehension of the various causes. This also includes why things are the ways they are and also includes what things are. ? He reached the conclusion that the aspect of completeness of knowledge comprises the design of a systematic ranking of true syllogism that is proved beyond reasonable doubt (Frank, 1953). “Rene Descartes-Theory of Knowledge” Sir Rene Descartes a philosopher and a critical thinker operated on the doctrine of doubt and questioning. He doubted every theory that he previously had knowledge of. He put to doubt every single principle of assumption that he knew and generally questioned every thing. Through this, he established a background for his theory on Human Knowledge. He dispelled of all the existing myths even doubted the existence of God our creator. He doubted and dispelled off all existing knowledge and truth about all the issues of the world. He further urged all mankind not to comply with what they know he urged every one to always doubt the prevailing truth. By this, it will enable them find new truth and new knowledge on existence of issues revolving around the world (Dewey, 1994). Works Cited: Copleston, F. C. (1975). A history of philosophy. Westminster, Md.: Newman Bookshop, Chicago. Dewey, J. ( 1994). Democracy and education: an introduction to the philosophy of education. The Free Press, New York. Frank, C. M. (1953). The historical development of nursing, emphasizing the cultural background of the race and the influence of philosophy and religion on the healing arts. Saunders, Philadelphia. Hodges, B. H. Geyer, A. L. (2006). Values, Pragmatics, and Moral Dilemmas", Personality and Social Psychology Review, California. Mill, J. S. Ashley, W. J (1965). Principles of political economy, with some of their applications to social philosophy. A. M. Kelley, bookseller, New York. Rachels, J. Stuart, R. (2010). The elements of moral philosophy. McGraw-Hill advanced Education, New York. Shaw, B. Charles M. (1962). Man and superman: [a comedy and a philosophy. Heritage Press, New York. Tikhanov, G. (2009). Gustav Shpet's contribution to philosophy and cultural theory. West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, New York. Wadia, A. R. (1996). History and philosophy of social work in India; a souvenir volume of the silver jubilee celebrations of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Bombay: Allied Publishers, California. Read More
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