Child abuse and neglect is a widespread social problem that affects all types of family structure and all segments of the population, regardless of individual differences in cultural background, geographic location, or economic status (Finkellor et al, 1990)…
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The devastating impact of child maltreatment on individuals, families, and society at large is well documented in empirical and clinical studies (Gilbert, 1994). Many serious long-term effects have been linked to child maltreatment, including mental retardation, intellectual and intelligence handicaps, impaired aggressive impulse control, diminished ego competency, reduced reality testing, and poor interpersonal relationships.
Child maltreatment results in increased antisocial activities. Maltreated aboriginal aboriginal children have more serious personal problems and engage in more antisocial activities and violence toward themselves and others (Hutchinson, Dattalo and Rodwell, 1994). When older, they end up in juvenile and adult correctional facilities at higher rates than aboriginal children from the general population. It is evident that child abuse and neglect is a problem that affects not only the individuals and families directly involved, but all sectors of society. Therefore, in order to deal with this problem, it is necessary for all professionals from all aspects of human ecology (individual, family, community, society, world) to become involved.
Aboriginal children throughout the world suffer an array of threats to their development, well-being, and survival (Lindsey, 1994). They suffer from poverty, famine, disease, and war. They suffer as they navigate the child-rearing practices and rites of their diverse cultures. And, they suffer from acts of omission or commission by their individual parents and caretakers. Parental behavior that compromises the development and survival of their offspring seems to contradict the biological and cultural dictates of rearing the next generation (Pecora et al, 1995). This enigma of human behavior demands consideration from a wider range of human cultural adaptation than that afforded by Western societies alone. This chapter will consider definitional issues that have been an impediment to cross-cultural research on child maltreatment. It will then turn to a review of current knowledge concerning categories of aboriginal children vulnerable to abuse, the relationship of kinship and social networks to child maltreatment, and the impact of urbanization and social change.
Child abuse is defined as any action (or lack of) which endangers or impairs a child's physical, psychological or emotional health and development. There are many factors that constitute child abuse (Pelton, 1989):
Physical Abuse - is any physical injury to a child which is not accidental. This involves severe beating, shaking, burns, human bites, strangulation.
Emotional Abuse - is when a child is not nurtured and is not provided with love and security. This involves constant criticism, belittling and persistent teasing.
Sexual Abuse - is when the child is involved in any sexual activity with an adult. This involves fondling, exhibitionism, sexual intercourse, incest, pornography.
Neglect - is depriving a child of their essential needs. These include nutrition, clothing, warmth and shelter, emotional security and protection, medical and dental care, hygiene, education and supervision.
According to Campbell in 1999, a clinical doctor, every case of child abuse leads to permanent damage and great long-term suffering. It may also lead to psychological trauma. Caplan in 1994 defined psychological trauma as the unique individual experience of an event or enduring conditions, in which:
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McComack explains that two contrasting theories supported by theorists like Hart, and Austin can be reconciled ,and it is obvious that what we consider to be immoral does occasionally correspond with what is also illegal. At times, there arises question as regard to whether free or informed consent has been received from the patient for the proposed surgery or there may be issues like whether consent has been received at all from the patient for the proposed surgery.
Doctors establish that child N has a massive haemorrhage of such proportions that, unless blood is transfused, she will die. Her parents are Jehovah's Witnesses, and interpret the bible as saying blood transfusion is a sin. They refuse to allow Child N to receive blood.
Cloning and assisted reproductive techniques serve as one such example. The first milestone in this field was achieved when the first cloned sheep Dolly was produced in the year 1997. Though Dolly was not able to survive for long but this invention led to the opening and creation of a new field.
Ethics has at all times, played an important role in healthcare management. Analysts argue that without ethics in health care, there is a likelihood that patients will end up having no basis of proper care and protection in the healthcare systems. It is as a result of a dire need for patient protection, that health care ethics were devised and are followed to the letter.
However, the principle of autonomy in health care postulates that practitioners are mandated to educate or effectively inform patients as a way of ensuring that they make informed decisions. As a result of this, debated have emanated on the distinction between the informing role of health care providers and the possible influence that they would have on the decisions of patients on health care (Eleftheriadis, 2012).
It is a key element in the standards of successful and effective research in healthcare and must address the rights, dignity, well being and safety of both participants and researchers in the exercise. This paper will discuss ethical issues that should be considered in a research and its presentation, including monitoring mechanisms that ensure ethics are adhered to.
Ethical dilemmas are universal in health care as the technological and scientific advances improving patient care are often accompanied by tough ethical questions. They are a challenge since one has to come up with a decision regarding two contrasting decisions most of the time, both of which contain ethical worth.
patient autonomy, beneficence, distributive justice (Osborne and Patterson, (1996) and paternalism (Osborne,Evans,1994).American Thoracic Society’s policy statement on resource allocation in intensive care unit(ICU) informs
She should benefit by being taken care of by the other members of the family. If no action was taken, she would view it neglect and alienation from the other family members.
Family members have got the duty to ensure that the elderly lady is taken good care
The author states that Ethics Code obligates health practitioners to practice only on their area of competence. Sometimes, difficulties arise when they practice in emerging issues where no clear standards exist. Through follow-up trainings in conferences, reading journals, and consulting colleagues, they can address the issue of competence.
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