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Epidemiology exam - Essay Example

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Jane Doe Statistics Exam July 2011 Question 1: Outline the major features of cohort and case-control studies in epidemiology, and indicate how such observational studies differ from intervention studies, such as randomised controlled trials. Characteristic Random Controlled Clinical Case Control Cohort Study Time Prospective Parallel Retrospective Prospective Incidence Side effects/Efficacy NO YES Prevalence NO NO NO Causality NO YES YES Role of Disease YES Begin with disease End with disease Assesses Intervention efficacy Risk factor for 1 disease 1 risk for many diseases Data Analysis Dbl blinded Odds ratio to est risk Relative risk to est risk Time B (retro) < Time A > Time C (prospective)…
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Download file to see previous pages The Odd's Ratio would provide the estimated risk of prior patients, however the relative risk is also assessed looking forward to new ones. Therefore, a Cohort works best here because the assessment is looked at in terms of the mothers habits affecting the child in a forward manner. Birth weight, however, can be affected by infection, lack of support, no neonatal care, previous abortions, previous preterm births and other confounding factors. Reduction of effects would be done by a complete and thorough history of the patients prior to entering the study. B: The question involves an investigation into whether people who have worked in the factory of a chemical company producing toxic chemicals are more likely to develop a specific lung disease. This is a retrospective study or case-control since we are analyzing only one disease plus we are looking backward at people that already worked or were involved in a process prior to Time A looking backward to Time B. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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