Free

Data Rules Summary - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Data Rules Summary Date: University: Data Rules Summary Decisions are made through a process of information gathering, synthesizing and then validating that information so that it becomes intelligence to be applied to action…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.5% of users find it useful
Data Rules Summary
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Data Rules Summary"

Data Rules Summary Data Rules Summary Decisions are made through a process of information gathering, synthesizing and then validating that information so that it becomes intelligence to be applied to action. Unfortunately, this process is much easier to entertain from behind a desk than in clinical practice. Nurses, especially novice nurses, often rely upon what they remember from nursing school or the protocols that can be read prior to an intervention.  Indecision that arises from critical situations can be compounded by lack of experience, the unavailability of a protocol for reference, an immediacy of need, insecurity, and simply emotional stress and pressure of the moment. The more experienced nurse has internal decision making resources provided by past experiences and a better ability to recognize patterns based on those experiences. Additionally, the experienced nurse may not experience the emotional barriers arising from fear of making the wrong decision. Fear prevents creative and clear problem solving abilities.  One way to hasten the pattern recognition skills that are critical in the clinical decision making process of a novice nurse is to create rules that provide a process of intervention through modeling the situation and potential actions that are best suited to accurately resolve health problems. This modeling is based upon a hypothesis and then a listing of rules that lead to a sequence of decisions to be made accordingly. The model and rules naturally also promote the novice nurse to anticipate potential corollary problems and prepare by mentally exploring solutions—proactively avoiding or at least mitigating problems. The best nurse is not the one who is good at ACLS, but rather the nurse who never has had a patient code in the first place.  The perfect ability for computerized information management to use a set of rules to determine errors or inappropriate events makes many of our everyday tasks simpler. For example, if you are entering a medication order for levothyroxine 125mg the computer refers to a set of rules that when translated into English says something like this, “if someone enters an order called levothyroxine 0.125mg or 0.250mg then write this into another box called a MAR. If someone enters an order called levothyroxine anything other than 0.125mg or 0.250mg then create an error message saying that this dosage is not acceptable.” By using this rule the nurse can be alerted to a risk for a poor decision and avoid serious problems that can occur when stressed or not entirely focused on the task at hand. Rules can and do prevent accidents.  Data rules, and in this case a computerized series of rules that guide the novice or even expert nurse in decision making is much more effective than paper rules that are in the form of standards, policies and procedures as the computer can follow nearly an infinite set of rules and offer direction without the exhaustive process of a person searching through reams of paper and notebooks or even trying to find a human resource for reference.  This article describes a complete consideration in defining rules based upon problems and interventions to solve those problems using nationally accepted standards (O’Neill, Dluhy, Fortier, & Michel, 2004). The authors premise that their prototype will consider the decision making process in how a nurse might “uncover, evaluate and assimilate information“ and develop a computer model based on rules that account for a clinical thinking process which refers the nurse to potential solutions that use best practice as the rules. They prudently used clinicians as well as scientists to develop this system rather than limiting input to only the clinicians or only the coders.  Combining potentially “perfect” solutions to problems by using a perfect tool (a computer that is never wrong) poses a perfect resolution to the challenges that a novice nurse faces during the learning period. In fact, this computerized approach to clinical decision making can relieve some of the mental stressors that accompany decision making for all levels of expertise and allowing more mental energy to be directed to personal interaction with patients and peers rather than the unnecessary nuts and bolts of mundane decisions.  These rules still need to be evaluated as it may be impossible to create a set of rules which address every possible problem. Another challenge is in making the interface easily and readily accessible and usable by the clinician. The complexity of an interface between user and tool has always been and always will be an issue that needs continual consideration.  I recently developed a paper check off list (a set of rules) to ensure than every required documentation is completed when we have secluded a patient. We experienced a situation where the nurse did not complete the flow sheet in the two hours allotted time, the doctor did not write an order within the four hours allotted time and some other missing pieces. So, in order to engage our perfect tool, we have to perfectly enter data.  “A data rule is an IF…THEN…statement that contains biophysical and/or psychosocial information” (O’Neill, Dluhy, Fortier, & Michel, 2004, p. 139). These rules comprise the basic knowledge that nurses use to observe a disease process in a patient, care for a patient during the progression or regression of that disease process, and evaluate a patient’s response to specific therapeutic interventions. An example of an individual rule would be: If the patient has impaired vision, then risk for falls. The data rule would then lead the nurse to perform a falls risk assessment and implement appropriate fall prevention guidelines for that patient.  The Nurse Computer Decision Support Project (N-Codes) is a clinical decision support system (CDSS) prototype for knowledge development. In order to develop data “rules” for this project, the creators first needed to understand the conceptual framework for novice nurse decision-making in practice. This conceptual framework was used to plan the direction and sequence of decision-making events for the data rules. It was also used to anticipate the decision points that occur in actual practice.  Once the decision points were established, the developers were able to establish domain categories for knowledge development, then a typology of the major problems for specific symptoms which could be narrowed down to a specific focus. The creators used CINAHL, PUBMED, and OVID databases to find the best available evidence. They also used resources and evidence-based reports from the web. The evidence collected was appraised for internal validity and quality. In addition, clinician input was also used to resolve conflicts in the literature review. After each piece of evidence was evaluated, the data rules were developed for each domain category. The cumulative strength of all the evidence determined the rating of the data rule (e.g., strong, sufficient, and marginal). After the data rules were rated, the developers categorized them according to the decision points identified in the conceptual framework stage. Finally, practice maps (or templates) for each clinical condition were created using the data rules. These are laid out to resemble the thought process used by a nurse to arrive at a decision. Procedural rules are used to link data rules and connect domains of knowledge.  O'Neill, E., Dluhy, N., Fortier, P., & Michel, H. (2004). Knowledge acquisition, synthesis, and validation: a model for decisions support systems. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(2), 134-142. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.  O'Neill, Dluhy, Fortier, and Michel (2004) made an interesting observation regarding new graduate nurses, which is that the new graduates when faced with clinical problems they could not differentiate between problems that were less acute and those that required immediate attention, therefore incrementing errors, especially in decision making. O'Neill et al. (2004) explicated that because current strategies don’t contain enough knowledge sources to bring about the best evidence, a firm base in nursing knowledge needs to be built with decision tools of a similar sort as clinical decision support systems. O'Neill et al. (2004) mentioned that a prototype for a likely candidate for decision support is under development by the Nurse Computer Decision Support Project (N-CODES). The best evidence on hand produces rules and cases to build this prototype, because room needs to be made in order to organize the disparate evidences for decisions made in practice.  Once the quality of evidence was rated, then the strength of each data rule could be evaluated and developed and organized for each domain category; O'Neill, Dluhy, Fortier, and Michel (2004) explained, “a data rule is an IF…THEN… statement that contains biophysical and/or psychosocial information. This is the knowledge that nurses use to monitor disease processes, evaluate therapeutic responses, and care for patients as they experience threatening and uncertain situations” (p. 139).Then after the data rules are connected a procedural rule will conform to a model: If stipulation X, is evident, then do Y. The ‘IF’ part of the rule relates to the domain knowledge in the data rules. The ‘THEN’ part brings about some other task.  O’Neill et al. (2004) gave us an example of risk category questions: Who is at risk for X? Then the intervention category question would be: If I suspect X, what do I do? They added that so far, there are 15 categories of grouped rules, which include: emotional responses (What are the emotional responses that one needs to be aware of?) and the ‘living with’ category (What are the issues of that person living with X?).  The majority of expert systems (ES) possess hard coded situation-specific knowledge inside rules that are within the knowledge base, thereby generating difficulties in system updates (Murthy & Swanson, 1992). Many ES have suchlike features, where the knowledge is typically depicted as IF-THEN rules. The reasoning techniques comprise forward chaining and backward chaining and are capable of generating explanations of the application programs' reasoning ("Expert Systems Building," 1993).  References WETC Hyper-Librarian. (May, 1993). Expert Systems Building Tools: Definitions. Retrieved on 6th June 2011 from http://www.wtec.org/loyola/kb/c3_s2.htm Murthy, U. S., & Swanson, J. A. (1992). Integrating Expert Systems and Database Technologies: An Intelligent Decision Support System for Investigating Cost Variances. Journal of Information Systems 6 (2). 127-148. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. O'Neill, E. S., Dluhy, N. M., Fortier, P. J., & Michel, H. E. (2004). Knowledge acquisition, synthesis, and validation: a model for decision support systems. Journal of Advanced Nursing 47 (2), 134-142.  Summary The Nurse Computer Decision Support Project (N-CODES) utilized a set of data rules based on best practice evidence in order to develop a decision support system (DSS) (O'Neill, Dluhy, Fortier, & Michel, 2004). The authors describe data rules as an "IF...THEN...statement that contains biophysical and/or psychosocial information" (O'Neill et al., 2004, p. 139). As the team evaluated the evidence used to support each rule, they rated the level of the evidence to determine the strength of that evidence. Once they determined the level of evidence, they were able to begin to build practice maps using the "if...then..." (O'Neill et al., p. 139) statements to outline the knowledge set (the "if") and the related task (the "then"). In their practice map, they were able to draw out a map that shows how the data rules then interface with procedural rules that mimic the way a nurse would react in a given clinical situation.  The act of creating data rules and drawing practice maps seems like an act of deconstruction. In nursing, experienced nurses draw upon years of clinical experiences as well as their study of best practices and evidence based literature to react on behalf of their patients. If one asks experienced nurses how they knew to act so instinctively and fluidly in response to a clinical event, they may not be able to give an answer other than "I just know." Deconstructing how they know to respond is an important step in helping novice nurses understand how and why to react (O'Neill, Dluhy, & Chin, 2005). Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Data Rules Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/other/1424685-data-rules-summary
(Data Rules Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words)
https://studentshare.org/other/1424685-data-rules-summary.
“Data Rules Summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/other/1424685-data-rules-summary.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Data Rules Summary

Discovery rules

...the process is complete, there will be a lot of time lost eventually leading to the loss of data. For instance, an example of a clear preparation that takes into account the observance to the European union commands and the valuable utilization of the e- discovery technique is the use of a device called MacLockPick II which is designed to capture information that might be considered valuable to an IT manager, the E-Discovery proficient, or a digital forensics rule enforcement officer. Such information includes details about the system, activities of the client of that scheme, and the online account of that client. This device is used to capture the forensic IP records of a person without breaching of any...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Property Rules, Liability Rules and Inalienability

...Law 7 May Property Rules, Liability Rules and Inalienability Introduction Property ownership, leasing, ized means of acquisition, use and sale is recognized by law in nations all over the world. The law on ownership and transfer of property has evolved over time to be recognized by the modern governments. From the pre-colonial times to the emergence of feminism, the law has changed to promote equity, give women rights to ownership of property, and guide society on rules pertaining relationship’s property, individual or group ownerships and land properties. The interpretation of some property laws however varies in different countries, but all work to promote order and coexistence of...
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper

Islamic Rules

...? Islamic Rules al Affiliation: Introduction Sharia is a term used to refer to the rules and regulations that govern the Islam religion. It is the moral religious law and the moral code of Islam. This law deals with many issues including economics, crime and politics. It also deals with other personal matters such as hygiene, prayer and sexual intercourse. This sharia law varies from one culture to another in accordance to its strictness. Though it varies in regards to culture, it is considered the law of God which is opposed to the interpretation of law according to human nature. There are two major sources of this law in the religion of Islam. The first source is the Quran where there are laws that are...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Money rules

...?Money Rules INTRODUCTION Documentary films are acknowledged to be an invaluable art form but at times are also widely neglected as well. Documentaryfilms are not journalistic but they contain effects including music and manipulate reality with few pretensions. Documentary films have provided new avenues for communicating with large audiences and have also played a significant role in informing audiences about certain social and environmental issues and bringing socially and environmentally acceptable changes. Over the last decades, documentary films have accorded significant importance especially amid the audiences in the United States (John Michael Williams, “The Importance of Documentary Films’). THESIS STATEMENT...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Rotterdam Rules

...Effects of the Implementation of the Rotterdam Rules On September 23, 2009 the maritime industry put into practice a new set of rules and regulation termed as Rotterdam Rules, when 15 countries ratified the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea. These rules are set to replace the Hague rules of 1924 and the Hague-Visby and Hamburg Rules of 1978. In addition these rules will also replace country specific rules like the US Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1936 and similar other legislations (Darling, 2009). After coming into effect these changes...
14 Pages(3500 words)Essay

Data Rules

...Data Rules in a Decision Support System of Discuss how datarules” are developed and used to support the knowledge-based subsystem in article, Knowledge acquisition, synthesis, and validation: A model for decision support systems. Simply put, a DSS or a decision support system is an interactive software that takes certain data parameters as input from the user and provides assessed output that is meaningful to the stakeholders. In doing so, it logically assesses the input comparing it to prior knowledge base embedded into it. It then provides useful information as output. This information assists the user of the system in decision making, identification...
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework

Simple rules

...Simple rules for Making Alliances Studies show that the number of corporate alliances account for nearly 3 of many companies revenue and value. The failure of alliances however continues to be on the rise calling for experts’ advice. The conventional advice from the expert is as therefore needed. To begin achieving reliably higher success rates with their alliances, the companies need to shift their focus to five principles that complement the conventional advice from the experts. The principles include; - placing more emphasis on;- defining the right business arrangement, creating ends metrics, eliminating differences, establishing formal alliance management systems and structures and managing external relationships...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Brain Rules

...Brain Rules The following include a list of Brain Rules that have been covered in the Video “Brain Rules” Survival: The human brain did evolve Exercise: The brain power is boosted by exercise Sleep: when you sleep well, you think well Stress: Stressed brains is known for not learning the same way Wiring: Every brain is wired differently Attention: attention is not paid on boring things Memory: Repeat to remember Sensory integration: More of the senses are stimulated Vision: Vision is known to trump all other senses Gender: Females and male brains are seen to be different Exploration: We are natural and powerful explorers The #1 exercise focuses on the fact that exercise boosts the brain...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Business Rules and Data Models

...BUSINESS RULES AND DATA MODELS Business Rules and Data Models Affiliation Colleges usually want to track the following information in a database: 1. Admission for which class. 2. Group 3. student 4. CNIC (Computerized National Identity Card)/ Social Security Number 5. Date of Birth 6. Father/ guardian occupation 7. Contact information 8. Address 9. Marital status 10. Fee information 11. Religion 12. Nationality 13. Marks obtained in previous class 14. Elective subjects. Purpose of a database “A database is a collection of information that is organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed, and updated” (Rouse, 2006). The basic purpose of a database is to save the...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Brain rules

...Brain rules November 11, Brain rules Summary Rule number one s that exercise boosts brainpower. Empirical data supports this and shows that exercise promote executive function, spatial tasks, reflexes, and quantitative potentials. This is because exercise increases oxygen supply to the brain towards mental sharpness and increased number of neurons. Rule two states that the brain evolved too. This is because of its ability to have survived the environment and to have ruled the world. Scientists also argue that walking upright made the brain bigger and its operations more efficient, a change that defines evolution....
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Data Rules Summary for FREE!

Contact Us