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Identify a patient with an altered physiological status due to an acute illness/ injury - Assignment Example

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COPD is characterised by progressive and partial irreversibility of airflow limitation. The airflow limitation is associated with a chronic inflammatory process in the airways and lung…
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Identify a patient with an altered physiological status due to an acute illness/ injury
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Identify a patient with an altered physiological status due to an acute illness/ injury

Download file to see previous pages... ion from stable state leading to in onset and necessitates a change in regular medication in a patient with underlying COPD (Hanania & Sharafkhaneh 2011).
According to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) I shall use the name Sue to protect the patient’s confidential information. Sue is a 76 year old who was admitted to the hospital had increased breathlessness associated with increased coughing and sputum and with change in colour and viscosity of the sputum. She also had fatigue, wheezing and chest pain. It was confirmed that she had an exacerbation of COPD. She is married with three children who are very supportive and willing to support in any hospital requirements. She requires adequate medical since exacerbation of COPD can lead to respiratory failure, possibly admission to hospital. Repeated exacerbations may also lead to declined health status of the patient both physically and emotionally (Hansel 2001).
In COPD, the chronic and recurrent obstruction of airflow in the airways is usually progressive accompanied by airway hyperactivity and may be partially reversible. COPD encompasses enlargement of air spaces and destruction of lung tissue (emphysema) which leads to hyperinflation of the lungs producing an increase in total lung capacity. Emphysema is caused by smoking and an inherited deficiency of α1-antitrypsin which protects the lung from injury. Chronic obstructive bronchitis is characterised by increased mucus obstruction, obstruction of small airways and a chronic productive cough. Sue was experiencing overlapping features of both emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
The mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of COPD are multiple and include inflammation and fibrosis of the bronchial wall, hypertrophy of the sub mucosal glands and hyper secretion of mucus and loss of elastic lung fibres and alveolar tissue. Inflammation and fibrosis of the bronchial wall along with excess mucus secretion and destruction of elastic fibres which normally provide ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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