In carrying out research, the importance of having a clear understanding as to the setting of the study, the adequacy of the sample and using the appropriate sampling method cannot be gainsaid. This paper outlines these issues concerning two different studies carried on cancer…
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The caregivers and patients included in the research were also supposed to have sixth grade education at the minimum and be in a position to read and comprehend English. They should also attain a score of at least seven in the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) as well as at least 40 in the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS). Since the study concentrated on management of pain, constipation and dyspnea, the patients included in the research had to be experiencing two of them.
A sample of 329 home care patients suffering from cancer and family caregivers were selected and randomly grouped into three categories. One control group comprised of 109 people received standard care, another group with the same number received standard care and friendly visits while the third group comprised of 111 people received standard care and COPE intervention. This method of sampling is known as cluster sampling in which case naturally occurring groups would be selected and be included in a sample. In this method, the population would be divided into groups or samples. In some cases, rather than collecting data from every group, a sub-sample would be used.
Economical- expenditure is one of the major concerns in any sampling method. However, since the research will be carried out on clusters, the expenditure is tremendously reduced due to the fewer listing efforts incorporated (William, 2007).
Feasibility- cluster sampling method is also more feasible when carrying out research on large populations (William, 2007). Given that the population in the large hospice is in excess of 300, carrying out comprehensive research may not be very feasible and therefore, clustering the samples would make it more feasible.
In carrying out any form of research, the vulnerability of the variables used in the samples is taken into consideration (William, 2007). In essence, the patients and caregivers used in the research are quite vulnerable given the
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Prior to implementation of HIPAA, healthcare rules and regulations varied from one state to another in the US and hence lacked uniformity with the requirements of the federal government. Additionally they also lacked effective healthcare security and privacy measures and there was no standard authority to check the fraud and abuse of the system.
Informed consent is an issue that has many facets. While the truism is that informed consent is generally good, there is some research which suggests that there is a limit to how much a patient should be informed. One research study suggests that, if a patient is informed about all risks, no matter how small, this is a disservice, as a patient’s mind tends to conjure up symptoms that do not exist and the more risks are dictated to a patient, the more likely the patient is going to experience that “symptom.” Another study suggests that, with dying patients, it is perhaps better not to inform them of negative statistics, such as how long they might expect to live if they take a certain d
On the other hand, the rise of spiritual and religious undertones in movies and literary arts is being attributed to the opinions that the world is going to reach its conclusive end in 2012. That literature such as Nostradamus’ Nabiru and the Mayan’s Doomsday Calendar abound and strengthen these ideas, is a matter that has further integrated religious ideas with movies.
The study utilized various scientific research methods to collect and analyze relevant data essential in explaining the subject of interest. The research methodologies included both primary and secondary research approaches. Primary research acquires first hand information from respondents whilst secondary research approach gathers existing data and information from secondary information materials on the topic under investigation.
The research questions for this study are the following: 1. To what extent does leadership effectiveness affect workers task performance? 2. What is the relationship between effective leadership and worker job satisfaction? 3. How does leadership effectiveness affect the self-confidence among nurses?
Clients, therefore, need adequate information about the counselor and the counseling process before engagement in the treatment process. Counselors have an obligation to review the rights and responsibilities in both writing and verbally with their clients.
owed managerial experimentation to remain unchecked.” (2002) The main argument that they have for this is that the terms of the Helsinki Declaration do not apply properly to Health Services Research due to the ways in which it differs from Clinical Research. This is the
Examples of aspects of medical malpractice include not diagnosing or simply misdiagnosing a health condition, inability to accord a suitable treatment for a health condition and implausible delay in administering treatment after diagnosing a