Leininger's nursing theory article summaries - Research Paper Example

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Madeleine Leininger developed the culture care diversity and universality theory as a key theory “to advance transcultural nursing knowledge, and to use the findings in teaching, research, practice, and consultation” (Leininger, 2002, p.189). It continues to be one of the…
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Leiningers Nursing Theory Research Article Summaries Madeleine Leininger developed the culture care diversity and universality theory as a key theory “to advance transcultural nursing knowledge, and to use the findings in teaching, research, practice, and consultation” (Leininger, 2002, p.189). It continues to be one of the oldest, holistic, and most comprehensive theories to generate knowledge of diverse and similar cultures worldwide, and to ensure culturally competent, safe, and harmonious nursing care.
A study was conducted by Lewallen and Street (2010) to explore the issues of initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African American women. The qualitative research design used focus groups guided by Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality. The setting for the study covered three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. The participants included fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed; they were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. The research study on three focus groups was undertaken with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were thoroughly investigated in the group, and included as a guiding question for the next group.
The categories identified from the data included reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding whether useful or not useful, and cultural issues pertaining to breastfeeding distinctive to African Americans. The three main themes identified for all categories were “perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a supporting system for continued breastfeeding” (Lewallen & Street, 2010, p.667). The authors concluded that women should be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding. They should also be provided with continued support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Further, it was considered
vital to ensure that African American women have peer support group for breastfeeding.
The socio-cultural factors that influence care and caregiving vary in different places, with both beneficial and harmful effects on the caregivers. The cultural and social structural factors that impact caregivers of people living with HIV/ AIDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were found to be religious beliefs, economic issues, education, and social stigma and discrimination. Leininger’s culture care diversity and universality theory helps provide caregiving by family in a culturally congruent manner to those requiring nursing assistance (Aga et al, 2009b).
A second research study conducted by Aga, Kylma, and Nikkonen (2009a) was a focused ethnographic study which examines and describes the conceptions of care among family caregivers of people living with HIV/ AIDs also known as PLWA (People Living with Aids) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The core concept of the ethnographic study was Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality. The methodology of the research included semistructured interviews and participant observation, 6 main informants and 12 general informants were interviewed in their home in Amharic language.
The data was analyzed in Amharic using Leininger’s phases of ethnonursing analysis for qualitative data, and then translated to English. Four major ideas representing family care givers’ conceptions of care were identified. These factors included nourishing the PLWA while
“struggling with poverty, maintenance of cleanliness and hygiene of the person and their environment, comforing the People Living with Aids, and sacrificing self to protect the latter. Valuable data were collected about the family caregiver’s conceptions of care. Nursing can utilize this knowledge to “design and provide culturally congruent care to familoy caregivers and People Living with Aids in the community” (Aga et al, 2009a, p.48).
Aga, F., Kylma, J. & Nikkonen, M. (2009a). The conceptions of care among family caregivers of
Persons living with HIV/ AIDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing,
20(1): pp.37-50.
Aga, F., Kylma, J. & Nikkonen, M. (2009b). Sociocultural factors influencing HIV/ AIDs
Caregiving in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Nursing and Health Sciences, 11(3): pp.244-251.
Leininger, M. (2002). Culture care theory: A major contribution to advance transcultural
nursing knowledge and practices. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3): pp.189-
Lewallen, L. P. & Street, D. J. (2010). Initiating and sustaining breastfeeding in African
American women. Journal of Obstretic, Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing, 39(6): pp.667-
674. Read More
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