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Chemical Dependency - Research Paper Example

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Determinants of Substance Abuse Name: School: Determinants of Substance Abuse Substance abuse has remained a major concern among groups of all ages. Throughout an ordinary day in 2006, the following numbers of youths took the following substances: 7,970 took alcohol, 4,348 took illicit drugs, 4082 smoked cigarettes and 2517 took pain relievers without a doctor’s prescription (Johnston et al., 2010)…
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Chemical Dependency
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Download file to see previous pages In 2009, people between 18 and 25 had the highest levels of drug use; 21.2 percent, which is driven by the increased consumption of marijuana. Forty-two percent of those between 18 and 25; 36.3 percent among the adults between 26 and34 and among 19.2 percent of those beyond 35 years reported to be binge drinkers (UDHHS, 2010). Among the adults that were dependent on alcohol consumption, the consumption medical drugs without prescription and the use of illicit drugs was higher. Determinants of substance Abuse Different biological, environmental, social, genetic and psychological factors are linked to the increasing levels of substance abuse. The factors determining alcohol consumption include race, gender, age, ethnicity, income levels, sexual orientation and educational attainment (CDC, 2011). The abuse of drugs and other substances is strongly determined by household, interpersonal and community dynamics (CDC, 2011). Among the major influencers of drug and substance abuse are social networks, family and peer pressure, especially among adolescents. For example, different studies show that marijuana consumption was triggered by interacting with siblings and friends that take them. The in-depth understanding of these factors will form key areas in countering drug and substance abuse in America as well as elsewhere (Galea, Nandi & Vlahov, 2004). Indirect and direct financial costs Drug abuse is a principle public health problem, which impacts the society at multiple levels. Directly or indirectly, all human communities are affected by drug use and abuse, particularly at the family level. Approximate costs of substance abuse for the US Source: (NIDA, n.d) Substance abuse costs USD 484 billion every year. These figures compare, to a large extent, to the costs incurred during the fight to deal with chronic diseases. Diabetes costs USD 131.7 and Cancer takes about USD 171.6 billion in a year (NIDA, N.D). Drug abuse as major cause for the public health problems Americans view drug abuse as a principal cause of health problems. For example, tobacco contributes about 11-30 percent of cancer deaths (NIDA, n.d). The abuse of tobacco, MDMA, cocaine, steroids and amphetamines contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Tobacco contributes about 30 percent of heart disease cases every year. In relation with the increasing spread of HIV/AIDS, 30.3 percent of the infection rates reported in 2000 (11,635) and hepatitis infections resulted from injection drug consumption. About 50 percent of the AIDS cases among children (4700 in 2002) were reportedly caused by the use of injection drug administration by the mother, or through sexual intercourse between the mother and a person infected through the channel (NIDA, n.d). Other indirect costs of substance abuse include drugged drinking, which constitutes between 10 and 22 percent of road crashes; violence, where among the people arrested for crimes like assault, theft and homicide, many were under the influence of illicit substances during the time of crime and arrest. Substance abuse is related to the acquisition of different consequences, including injuries, illness, and death – particularly following the consumption of alcohol, tobacco or other addictive drugs. During 2000, about 460,000 deaths could be traced to smoking and the abuse of drugs (NIDA, n.d). Psychological and physical ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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