A critique of the article “Functional Outcome in Bipolar Disorder: The Big Picture” Name Institutional affiliation Tutor Date A critique of the article “Functional Outcome in Bipolar Disorder: The Big Picture” Bipolar disorder is a mental illness characterized by shifts in moods, fluctuations in energy levels, and inability to complete basic daily tasks…
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On one hand, there are those people who, although they have bipolar disorder, accomplish so much in their lifetime and become historical landmarks. Conversely, bipolar disorder can interfere with the psychosocial functioning of certain people, thus making it difficult for them to carry out normal daily functions. In their work, Functional Outcome in Bipolar Disorder: The Big Picture Levy & Manove (2012) seek to gain more insight into the functionality levels of people with bipolar disorder. This essay aims at critiquing the work by Levy & Manove and analyzing the validity of their arguments. In their work, Manove & Levy (2012) aim at explaining the causes of negative functional outcomes among people with bipolar disorder, in addition to proposing mechanisms for reducing this deficiency in functionality. To this end, the authors succeed in explicating how people with bipolar disorder are unable to function properly. The authors do this by looking at a number of issues affecting bipolar people. The causes and triggers of bipolar disorder are often a debated topic among experts in this area. Some suggest that the condition is inherent, while others suggest that the condition is acquired from life experiences. ...
Nonetheless, the authors argue that people with bipolar disorder experience more emotional instabilities than normal people, in addition to poor premorbid functionality. The authors successfully inform the reader about the various difficulties faced by people with bipolar disorder. For example, as Levy & Manove (2012) write, studies have shown that bipolar disorder affects the functioning of the brain, through a process in which the high stress levels reduce the volume of the prefrontal lobe, and an increase in the lateral ventricles. Essentially, severe illness leads to cognitive dysfunction, which then worsens the functioning of people with bipolar disorder. According to Levy & Manove (2012), studies show a positive correlation between cognitive deficiencies and the severity of illness among people with bipolar disorder. The authors suggest that changes in moods may affect verbal memory for bipolar people. If the mood changes are too frequent, then it may lead to psychological stress for the person with bipolar disorder, thus contributing towards the formation of neurotoxins which lead to the degeneration of the neurological and cognitive functions in the body. It is often reported that people with bipolar disorder often exhibit abnormally high levels of anxiety, as compared to normally functioning people. In this respect, Levy & Manove (2012) write that the more severe the illness, the higher the anxiety levels among bipolar people. Extremely high anxiety often leads to early onset of mania, addiction to substance abuse, and higher chances of suicide among bipolar peoples. The authors, therefore, argue that anxiety often leads to cognitive impairments among people with bipolar disorder. The argument advances
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Bipolar disorders and other types of mood disorders are characterized by an occurrence of a mood that might be strange or atypical in certain situations or circumstances. This paper discusses the basic distinctive description of this illness. It describes how a person suffering from such a disorder might act around the family, friends, and society.
When an individual suffers from bipolar disorder, they experience changes in their mood that can be either short and abrupt, happening without warning, or else can last for weeks at a time. Believed to be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain, bipolar disorder affects the way that an individual feels and acts, often despite the experiences that they are going through in life.
From the above study thus, it can be concluded that the severity of the bipolar disorder depends of the type of the disorder affecting an individual. While the symptoms, diagnosis and the treatments are similar to great extents in case of bipolar I and bipolar II, yet the effects of the type II disorder have proved to be milder.
At one moment they would be in a cheerful or good mood, in the next minute, depression would fall upon them, no matter what the reason. Irritation, Sleeping patterns get disrupted, concentration level falls, feelings of anxiety and worry, eating habits get changed, fall in energy levels is observed and they feel discomfort from their surroundings.
Knowing that we are not mentally disordered Mental disorders manifests in people’s behavior and have specific symptoms. The signs are however numerous and diversified from one type of disorder to another and their total absence indicates that a person is not mentally disordered.
According to National Institute of Mental Health (n.d.), nearly 5.1 American adults suffer from bipolar disorder and every year, approximately 2.6 per cent of the total population of the US aged at least 18 years suffers from bipolar disorder. While some of the patients remain determined and seek medical and therapeutic help, others do not remain so composed and many of them even commit suicide because of the depression caused by bipolar disorder and its other negative impacts on their everyday life.
There are several types of bipolar disorders including bipolar I disorder and bipolar II disorder; both of them are characterized by alternating episodes of depression and mania (Pomeroy and Wamba, 2002), which is a heightened or exaggerated mood. Other names for this mental condition include bipolar affective disorder and manic-depressive disorder, though sometimes it is simply referred to as manic depression.
The paper explores the classification of bipolar and the diagnostic criteria according to DSM V. In addition, it analyzes the different empirically proven therapeutic methods for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorder Introduction Bipolar disorder (maniac depressive disorder) is a psychiatric disorder that is accompanied by spontaneous mood swings that can involve outbreaks of depression and others of high mania (Godwin & Jamison, 2007).
Mania symptoms are characterized by excessive display of a specific kind of feeling or emotion like excessive excitement, happiness, restlessness, irritability, agility, sex drive, euphoria, poor judgment,
Neuroimaging techniques have somehow proven that the tendency to develop bipolar disorder can be predicted even in childhood. Moreover, bipolar disorder is also suspected as a multi-systemic inflammatory disease that may actually trigger the same pathways as cardiovascular
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