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APA - Research Paper Example

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Indian J Med Res. 2010 November; 132(5): 598–607. PMCID: PMC3028965 Obesity in children & adolescents Manu Raj and R. Krishna Kumar Department of Pediatric Cardiology Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Kochi, Kerala, India Reprint requests: Dr Manu Raj, Associate Professor (Research), Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Kochi 682 041, Kerala, India e-mail: [email protected] Author information > Article notes > Copyright and License information > Received April 30, 2009 Copyright © The Indian Journal of Medical Research This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution L…
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Download file to see previous pages It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken. Keywords: Adolescents, children, dietary management, obesity, overweight Go to: Introduction Worldwide, disease profiles are transforming at a rapid pace catching the attention of medical professionals and policy makers alike. This is particularly true in low and middle-income countries that form the major chunk of global population. The emerging epidemics of obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes form the crux of this phenomenal change. Among these entities, obesity has become a colossal epidemic causing serious public health concern and contributes to 2.6 million deaths worldwide every year1. Obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as well as reduced life expectancy. The last two decades of the previous century have witnessed dramatic increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents2. For children and adolescents, overweight and obesity are defined using age and sex specific normograms for body mass index (BMI). Children with BMI equal to or exceeding the age-gender-specific 95th percentile are defined obese. Those with BMI equal to or exceeding the 85th but are below 95th percentiles are defined overweight and are at risk for obesity related co-morbidities3. Go to: Epidemiology Childhood obesity affects both developed and developing countries of all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. It has been estimated that worldwide over 22 million children under the age of ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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