Therapeutic hypothermia is also known as ‘targeted temperature management’. Michelle E. has discussed in detail about the induction of therapeutic hypothermia and its outcomes in patients undergoing open cardiac surgery. …
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TDuring an open heart surgery, there is significant risk of neurological injury on account of the lack of oxygen supply to brain as the circulation comes to a halt. In the absence of oxygen, the brain undergoes anaerobic metabolism as reported by Michelle E. (2011). This leads to damage to ATP dependent cellular functions with a resulting increase in calcium and glutamate excretion. The brain cells thus become more active, consuming more oxygen. With the increasing hypoxemia, further damage occurs leading to cell death. The resultant cerebral edema further enhances the damage. Also, as a result of all these processes, the blood-brain barrier also becomes ineffective further contributing to cerebral edema. As soon as the circulation returns after the heart starts pumping again, reperfusion injury occurs which adds up to the ongoing damage. Meanwhile, there is already an onset of the inflammatory reaction as a result of cell death leading to a release of neutrophils and macrophages in an attempt to remove the cellular debris. The resultant production of free radicals also catalyses the damaging process thus worsening the cerebral edema. This vicious cycle continues leading to brain death.
ROLE OF THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA IN PREVENTING NEUROLOGICAL DAMAGE: Using the technique of therapeutic hypothermia can be useful to avoid all the above described damage. The therapeutically induced hypothermia after cardiac arrest takes following steps to decrease the extent of neurological damage: 1. It stabilizes the release of calcium and glutamate thus decreasing the degree of cellular death, 2. It stabilizes the blood brain barrier, 3. It causes a suppression of the inflammatory response, 4. It reduces cerebral edema by the help of above actions. INDUCED THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA AFTER CARDIAC ARREST 4 According to the report produced by Michelle E. (2011), there is a reduction in cerebral metabolism from 6% to 10% for every one degree Celcius drop in body temperature. This results in decreased oxygen requirements by the brain cells. Michelle E. (2011) simulates the effects of therapeutic hy
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There are three sections to be discussed: the actual procedure of the cardiac catheterization; what nephropathy is; and how to best prevent contrast-induced neuropathy during the cardiac catheterization.
According to the American Association Guidelines, the procedure should only be done if the patient remains in a coma state following the return of spontaneous circulation. Numerous studies have been done to identify the risks and benefits associated with this procedure.
This condition is however, fraught with several risks, one of which appears to be kidney failure, known as nephropathy (Rudnick, 2006). The nephropathy occurs because of the contrast-medium injected to study the arteries and the structure of the heart and hence is known as contrast-induced nephropathy or contrast-induced nephropathy.
Rights were formed by the circlet and only were applied to those people the kingdom felt commendable. When charged of law-breaking, a civilian had very restricted defense and assurances of justice and appropriate procedure. In an attempt to offer definite and assured constitutional rights to individuals blamed of a wrongdoing, the Constitutional Alterations referred to the rights considered to defend citizens before taken into custody and to guarantee that arrests are centered on various accessible details.
The first problem, according to Rosiers and Bittle (2004) is that law does have a strong social basis. In other words, the law of a land is shaped by the ideals of the society in which it operates. As a result, new and new crimes appear in the statute books from time to time, and again, the law of a land gets significantly different from the law of another geographical area, and thirdly, though an action does not violate law in a particular country, if it violates the international law, the person again is liable to be punished.
Ethical questions will be addressed, as will the samples identified and defined by the article itself. Keywords: critique, analysis, hypothermia, clinical practice, cardiac arrest, review, heart arrest, sudden death After a thorough reading of the article titled “Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in clinical practice: Review and compilation of recent experiences,” it could be said that not only is the report well written, but the title is fitting to the contents of the report itself.
This paper is going to conduct a review on past prognosis assessments on patients under therapeutic hypothermia treatment. The review is aimed at proving that therapeutic hypothermia does impact neurologic functions thus improving the conditions of patients. Over the years, therapeutic hypothermia has stood out as the most appropriate care that can be given to patients with neurologic outcomes one of them being cardiac arrest.
A meta-analysis has been conducted by Cullen, Augenstine, Kaper, Tinkham and Utz in 2011 with a study title "therapeutic hypothermia initiated in the pre-hospital setting". As the research aims to study the success of the cooling process after resuscitation in the pre-hospital settings; thus, researchers have evaluated that hypothermia is induced in pre-hospital setting to deal with the comatose cardiac arrest patients.
The use of therapeutic hypothermia to assist patient recover from the post cardiac arrest effects have been extensively studied and established. Therapeutic hypothermia, also known as protective hypothermia is a common treatment used to lower the body temperatures of patients to help them from contracting ischemic injury to their tissues that occurs when the body is predisposed to insufficient blood flow.