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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Essay Example

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  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Name: Institution:           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves the occurrence of chronic emphysema or bronchitis, two of frequently synchronized conditions of the lungs in which the there is narrowing of the airways over time…
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease involves the occurrence of chronic emphysema or bronchitis, two of frequently synchronized conditions of the lungs in which the there is narrowing of the airways over time. This restricts air flow from and to the lungs, consequently making a person experience shortness of breath. Converse to asthma, this restriction is inadequately reversible and normally gets increasingly detrimental over time. In addition pulmonary issues augment in incidence with age. Therefore, the degree of individuals with respiratory issues and linked comorbidities will augment in the coming years and become an even large challenge to health care givers (Longmore, Longmore, Wilkinson & Supraj, 2004). This paper will look at the symptoms and signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the older adult dissimilarities in the clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer in the aged people in comparison to the youthful individuals. Shortness of breath is one of the most widespread symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Individuals suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complain of insufficient air supply. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characteristically become aware of dyspnea when performing thorough exercise when there is the largest demand for lungs. Dyspnea tends to grow progressively detrimental so that it can become evident during daily, milder duties, for example, housework. In severe phases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyspnea may become so severe that it is regularly present and occurs even during rest. Additional symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease include tiredness, persistent cough, chest tightness, wheezing, and mucus production or sputum (Mahler, 2006). Individuals with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may experience respiratory failure. Cyanosis may occur when this happens. Cyanosis refers to a condition where lips discolor due to lack of or inefficient oxygen in the blood. Too much carbon dioxide in the blood may cause twitching, drowsiness, or headaches. There are also a number of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease signs that may be evident. These signs may include a fast breathing rate, crackles or wheezing sounds in the lungs experienced through a stethoscope, exhaling lasting for a longer period than inhaling, increase in size of the chest, specifically the distance between front and back, frequent utilization of neck muscles to assist in breathing, breathing through tighten lips, and enhanced anteroposterior to the chest’s lateral ratio (Horn, Pao & Johnson, 2012). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is especially diagnosed by pulmonary function tests. Spirometry or straightforward measurement of airflow may be undertaken in a medical specialist’s office to prove chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The diagnosis is determined by a comprehensive pulmonary function test performed in a standardized laboratory, incorporating forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume. The seriousness of the condition may also be determined by blood gas examination (Kumar & Clark, 2005). Diagnosis may also be performed through a chest x-ray which will give essential information on the seriousness of the condition. Finally, physical examinations may provide essential information regarding the chest condition. The overall treatment objectives for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are to maintain quality of life, optimize lung function, prevent acute complications and flare-ups, limit or terminate disease advancement, and maintain airflow. The utilization of bronchodilator is the basis of treatment. It ensures enhancement in lung function. Inhaled drugs are quick to open the airways. Anticholinergic medicines that relax the airway’s smooth muscles may also be provided to regulate the seditious process. In addition, blended therapies may be used when their different impacts may cause enhanced lung function (Kumar & Clark, 2005). Specified treatments also include pulmonary rehabilitation, smoking cessation, supplemental oxygen, and antibiotics. Specific treatments may be introduced in acute episodes and other may be long-term. There are several differences in the clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic aspects of pulmonary tuberculosis in the elderly adults in comparison to the youthful adults. A febrile sense and hemoptysis are more recurrent in the youthful adults, whereas mental change, weakness, anorexia, and dyspnea are regular in the elderly adults (Morris, 2010). Also, elderly adults exhibit higher frequencies of chronic lung and cardiovascular diseases, whereas youthful adults indicate a higher degree of causal liver disease. There is also a higher incidence of lower or mid lung involvement by pulmonary tuberculosis lesions in the elderly adults than in youthful adults (Morris, 2009). Differences in the clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic aspects of lung cancer in the elderly adults compared to youthful adults are minimal. This is because a large number of lung cancer features are nonspecific. Nonetheless, youthful adults experience higher frequency of neurological symptoms, fever, and chest pains than elderly adults, and fewer of these symptoms are asymptomatic. Finally, youthful adults have a higher frequency of adenocarcinoma, numerous lobe lesions on chest roentgenogram, and more severe lung cancer. References Horn, L., Pao, W., & Johnson, D. H. (2012). "89". Harrison's principles of internal medicine (18th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Kumar, P., & Clark, M. (2005). Clinical medicine (6th ed.). New York: Elsevier Saunders. Longmore, J. M., Longmore, M., Wilkinson, I., & Supraj, R. (2004). Oxford handbook of clinical medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.  Mahler, D. A. (2006). Mechanisms and measurement of dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 3(3), 8-234. Morris, C. D. (2009). The radiography, haematology and biochemistry of pulmonary tuberculosis in the aged. Q J Med, 71(266), 529-536.  Morris, C. D. (2010). Pulmonary tuberculosis in the elderly: a different disease? Thorax, 45(12), 912-913.  Read More
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