Leukemia is a malignant disease that affects the hematopoietic system. If the overproliferation of immature leukocyte is evident, it is called acute leukemia, whereas well differentiated leukocytes are found in chronic leukemia …
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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or ALL, is the most common malignant carcinoma in pediatric patients (Cipoloti et al., 2003). It is characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukemic blasts that are poorly differentiated, leading to inadequate hematopoiesis (Siddique et al., 2011). Pathogenesis There are several studies that dissect the underlying cellular events responsible for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The basic mechanism for abnormal proliferation of any cell remains the same. The cell cycle consists of different phases with various check points to control abnormal division. The most important are the transition from G1 to S phase and G2 to M phase. Division of cell only takes place after receiving instructions from some external stimulation (Cipoloti et al., 2003). There are various mechanisms by which cells are regulated for division. This includes stimulation from special molecules called mitogenic substances, inhibition by various anti-proliferative cytokines and regulation by adjacent cells. Most of the cancer cells including those involved in ALL, abandon these regulatory mechanisms. Various studies including one by Cipoloti et al. tried to isolate mutations in those tumor suppressor genes that are responsible for keeping a check during cellular division. An example is the inactivation of p15 gene in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia....
According to the report, Notch 1 is a signaling pathway crucial for the development of T-cells and its mutation is found commonly in patients with ALL. To verify the extent of this abnormal expression, real time PCR was used to detect the gene and its mutation. It was evident in the results that most patients had overexpression of Notch 1 gene that contributed to overproliferation of T cells in ALL (Lin et al., 2012). Subtypes It is important to remember that there is no single cause of cancerous growth of cells in ALL, but various factors unite together and lead to this abnormal proliferation. Moreover, there are various subtypes within ALL, such as precursor B-Cell and T-Cell leukemia. All these subgroups show some variation in their pathogenesis. A study by Teuffel et al. in 2008 focused on anemia and survival in children suffering from various subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In the above mentioned cohort study, 1162 patients were analyzed for the subtype of ALL and their associated Hb levels. It was evident that patients with the T cell subtype had a higher level of hemoglobin as compared to the B cell precursor type. Moreover, less severe anemia was associated with an increased survival rate in early childhood. This explains that various subtypes have different impacts on the hematopoietic system and, therefore, variable survival rate. Risk Factors Few risk factors have been isolated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Those which are assumed to be associated with ALL are poorly verified and contain diverse controversial evidence. A matched control case study found that increased maternal age is associated with increased incidence of ALL. Paternal age showed no association and only a weak link
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This paper shall discuss the occupational exposure to Benzene among shoemakers and other individuals using said compound. This discussion shall first discuss the qualities of benzene in general and its elements which imply its health risks. Secondly, various studies discussing the impact of benzene on the health of workers shall be individually presented. Lastly, a summary and concluding remarks shall be indicates at the end of this article.
Even though there has been a lot of studies conducted in the past which relates obesity with the abnormal food intake or poor diet (Styne, 2005), a genetic factor such as a metabolic disorder (Roth et al., 2004), or the leptin deficiency and the use of steroids (Link et al., 2004); the major causes of obesity is still uncertain because each individual has different capacity of burning calories (Jebb & Prentice, 1995).
It possesses a structure similar to that of folic acid, and is a chemotherapeutic drug extensively used in treating patients having breast cancer, osteogenic sarcomas and leukaemia. Structure of Methotrexate X-ray diffraction technique was carried out to help determine the crystal and the molecular structure of Methotrexate.
They interfere with normal hematopoiesis and immunity in the bone marrow and lymphoid tissue and after immigration in to the peripheral blood, they infiltrate other tissues. Classification of Leukemias Leukemias are classified based on the cell types involved (lymphocytic or myeloid) and on the natural history of the disease (acute or chronic).
However, research on treatments involving stem cells has provided a ray of hope in containing this problem. Stem cells are cells that have the capacity to multiply or renew themselves. At the same time, stem cells possess the potential to develop into other cell types (Mandal, 2013).
Nutrition Examination Survey, approximately 17.1% of the 3,958 children who participated in the research study were overweight and that 35% of children between the age brackets of 6 to 19 years old are seriously overweight (Ogden et al., 2006).
A lot of past research studies
There are many underlying factors that have been identified in the causation of leukemia. These include radiations, chemotherapy, certain genetic disorders as well as the human T-cell leukemia virus-1. The pathological condition affects the males more commonly
In some countries, health care system has not evolved with the modern changes while others have made revolutionary changes by developing a well planned, organized and sophisticated health care system. Many organizations are involved in the health
of young white cells (blasts) which compromises the production of red cells which transports oxygen and nutrients, neutrophils which fight bacterial infections, and lymphocytes which fight both bacterial and viral infections and platelets which helps form clots to stop
The authors acknowledge that causes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not known, but in children, generic disorders such as Down syndrome can be predisposing to the development of the disease. Massive exposure to radiation and toxic chemical also may cause the Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia disease.
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