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Discussion Question Name Institution Cancer is among the most dreaded diseases in the world. It tops the list of global fatality causes accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths each year according to International Agency for Research on Cancer 2008 estimates…
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Download file to see previous pages However, given that one third of cancer cases can be traced to lifestyle, some cases can actually be prevented through adoption of healthy behavioural and dietary habits. To this end, the global health agencies have embarked on a sensetization campaign aimed at reducing cancer deaths by 8 million within a decade. Although numerous studies have been conducted to establish the real cause of cancer, none has given a definitive answer to this problem. Several factors both genetic and environmental are pointed out as likely causes. However, it is important to note that less than 9% of cancer cases are as a result of inheritance. Most cases are due to mutation of oncogenes caused by environmental elements such as cigarettes, alcohol, radiations and chemicals. In this regard, cancer is defined as a disease caused by uncontrolled growth and multiplication of body cells (Raymond, 2007). Through cell division and growth, the body is able to produce more cells needed for healthy existence. However, in some instances, the abnormal cell division and growth occurs leading to production of many cells some of which are not needed by the body. These extra cells gather to form either benign or malignant tumor. However, a benign tumor does not pose health risk because they do not move to other parts of the body. In the contrary malign tumors also known as cancerous cells multiply and damage neighboring tissues. In addition, they can separate from parent organ and spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph. With regard to cancer, diagnosis refers to the process of trying to establish whether the disease is actually cancer and its possible causes. It involves the removal of tissues from affected organs by a surgeon for examination under microscope by a pathologist. There are various types biopsy conducted on cancer suspects depending on the part of body being examined. When a needle is used to suck fluid from tumor cell, then the process is referred to as needle aspiration biopsy. Other types include excisional biopsy where the whole tissue is removed and incisional biopsy where part of the tissue is detached. After the diagnosis has been done, the process of examining its extent (staging) follow. This process is essential because it helps in determining the stage of cancer. There are four cancer stages often written in Roman numbers. Stage I imply that the tumor is small usually less than 2cm and still confined in the organ. Stage II cancer is bigger, usually 2-4 cm has not started spreading. Stage III cancer means the tumor is more than 4cm and has began spreading to the lymph nodes. Finally, stage IV means cancer has spread to other body organs Besides, staging help the physician to determine the type of tumor, check the spread, prescribe suitable treatment and predict the patient future outlook (Susan, Marsha and Margaret, 2009). Staging is preceded by clinical investigations such as surgery, blood test and medical scanning. Radiation imaging is the most common method used in staging. This can be done through Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computerized Tomography (CT) scans. Cancer like all other diseases is associated with various general and specific complications. Among the most prevalent complications is a neurological condition called brain metastases. It is estimated that 23% of cancer patients are affected by this condition. It is brought about by the spreading of tumors from other organs to the brain. Some of its side effects ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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