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Community Health- Communicable Diseases - Essay Example

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Community Health- Communicable Diseases [Name of Student] [Name of Affiliate Institution] Part A Introduction Measles or Rubeola is a communicable disease that affects mostly children under the age of five years. Before extensive vaccination of the disease, approximated related deaths were 2.6 million every year, in 1980 according to a study conducted by (Center for Disease Control (CDC), 2012)…
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Community Health- Communicable Diseases
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Download file to see previous pages This highly transmissible virus is spread via coughing, sneezing, contact with infected nasal or throat secretions or physical contact with infected individual. It can remain in the air or infected surface in its active virulent form for as long as two hours. Infected individuals can spread the virus from four days before up to four days after the manifestation of the signs or symptoms (Center for Disease Control (CDC), 2012). Respiratory diseases such as measles and Tuberculosis are usually very communicable because most of them are transmitted airborne. Care should be taken to ensure that in case of an outbreak the disease is contained within the shortest time possible to prevent an epidemic. Epidemiological Indicators Epidemiological indicators may be confused as they are similar to normal flu; however there are key indicators that would help one identify the symptoms with ease. Measles is characterized by high fever with temperatures higher or equal to 38.70 C, red watery eyes (a condition referred to as conjuvitis), runny nose and cough. These manifest 6 to10 days after infection with the virus. There is appearance of a red discolored rash on the face and the upper neck area accompanied by appearance of white-bluish spots in the buccal cavity, inside the cheeks. Similar rashes to those on the face and upper neck region, eventually spread to other parts of the body including the feet later. The rash disappears on its own, 5-6 days after its onset. Complications are very rare but when the immune system is compromised or in very severe cases, measles can lead to encephalitis, damage and infections to the middle respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia and diarrhea. Laboratory analysis involves Enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay, positive serologic analysis of IgM measles antibodies and significant increase in IgG measles antibody levels or by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the virus from a medical case (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). According to Killewo (2010) is to watch for the median value between the time when the rashes appear and when they reappear. Killewo continues to explain that epdeniological indicators show that the disease mostly affects children less than five years old and the very elderly. A study conducted in 2006 Somalia revealed that the disease mostly affects malnourished children leading to 50% to 80% of the deaths. Epidemiological indicators are important because they help doctors and practitioners to come up with effective preventive measures. Infection with measles remains high in regions where it is still endemic like some places in Africa and Asia. Most of these places are at high risk due to poor economy and poor coordination in and decentralized health systems. War conflicts and natural outbreaks have great significance in deadly measles outbreaks. The disease also spreads at great pace due to high population and low nutrition associated with these regions especially due to overcrowding in camps. However, most countries have been able to put it under control by introduction of measles vaccine. In the mid 20th century, as many as close to 1 million cases of measles infections were reported in the United States. Thanks to the measles vaccine, this number has reduced to as low as 150 cases as reported in the United States towards the end of the 20th century. Such progress led to the disease being declared ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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