Abstract Wegener’s granulomatosis is an uncommon inflammatory process of the small arteries and veins, which involves classically the arteries and veins supplying blood to the lungs, nasal passages, and kidney tissues…
Download file to see previous pages...
Wegener’s granulomatis has no known cause and although it affects people at any age, it usually affects the young or adults at their middle age. Fatigue, loss of weight, fever, shortness of breath, bloody sputum, joint pain, and inflammation in the sinuses are the common symptoms of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Several literatures are reviewed in this paper. Among patients with Wegener granulomatosis, narrowing of the lumen with some evidence of vasculitis resulted from thickened or fibrotic laryngeal wall. In some cases, granulation tissue replaces the mucosal lining of the larynx. Hence, laryngoscopy must be carefully performed to avoid bleeding from granulomas and dislodgement of ulcerations tissue among patients whom suspected diagnosis of Wegener granulomatosis is noted. Wegener’s granulomatosis is a fatal disease when it is not diagnosed and treated properly since it presents in various forms and deceives as manifestations of other diseases. Annotated Bibliography 1. Tanna, et al., (2011) Otolaryngologic Manifestations of Wegener Granulomatosis (WG) This article discusses that it is common to have otolaryngologic manifestation among patients with Wegener granulomatosis, and usually presents as nasal, sinus, ear, or tracheal manifestations in about 70 percent. The symptoms of otolaryngologic manifestations are oftentimes misdiagnosed as infectious or allergic in etiology and generally precede the pulmonary or renal involvement. On the other hand, up to 80 percent of nose and paranasal sinuses are involved in WG and in its early stage, are often misdiagnosed as chronic rhinitis or sinusitis. Mucosal edema with obstruction, rhinorrhea, ulceration, crusting, and epistaxis are common nasal signs and symptoms observed in WG. It is mentioned in this article that necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of upper and lower airways, small arteries and veins systemic vasculitis, and focal granulomatous are known as the classical triad of full – blown granulomatosis. However, it is noted that it does necessarily involve all three areas and organ systems. Hence, both could be limited and systemic variations may include in the head and neck alone; head and neck and pulmonary; and head, neck, pulmonary and renal, which can be indolent or rapid in its clinical course. Its constitutional signs and symptoms, which are common but dominate rarely the clinical picture, include fever, loss of weight, and fatigue. 2. Goritsas, C., Paissios, N., Trigidou, R., and Delladetsima, J. (2010). Hepatic Involvement in Wegener’s Granulomatosis: A Case Report. This paper talks about the hepatic involvement in a patient diagnosed to have Wegener’s Granulomatosis. This is a case report of a 58 year old man, Caucasian Greek presenting with dry cough, fever, bilateral alveolar infiltrates, and acute hepatitis. The patient was diagnosed with Wegener’s granulomatosis after a lung biopsy, and its diagnosis was supported by anti-proteinase-3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies present. Liver biopsy indicated a “presence of mild non-specific lobular hepatitis and periodic acid-Schiff positive Lafora-like inclusions in a large number of his liver cells.” Patient had remissions of chest x-ray findings and liver function test after being treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. The authors of this paper concluded that there is an etiological link between hepatitis and
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
For example east coastline of South America fit with the western coast of Africa. These observations allowed him to conclude that all continents were once a part of one big landmass. About 300 million years ago this big landmass (he called it Pangaea) was split into different pieces and drifted apart (Garrison, p 69).
He said that the continents seemed to fit together at the edge of their continental shelves. He based his argument from the observation that the rocks and fossils at the southern hemisphere exhibited a similar pattern. This pattern referred to as the "Gondwana sequence".
A medical intervention can be made when an individual faces discomforts due to a desire to be an associate of the opposite sex or when someone endures impaired distress of functioning due to gender identification. Transsexualism is disapproved in numerous parts of this world, but has become more broadly acknowledged in the Western tradition as from the mid 20th century, concurrently with the sexual revolution, as well as with the establishment of sex reassignment surgery (Ekins & King, 2006).
This paper discusses and analyzes the core concept of plate tectonics and its development through examples of Wegener, Hess and Wilson. Finally, the paper addresses the relationship between plate tectonics and mantle convection on the example of oceanic lithosphere.
5. The likelihood of a particular syndrome correlates with viral load and CD4 lymphocyte counts. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome) and isolated acute cranial
The author states that in most situations, the test quality is conducted informally resulting to very little or at time no quantitative evidence gathered by the tester to be used in determining the test coverage level. It is needless to achieve a test success that is 100% and yet the test quality can only manage to cover a small code fraction.