Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Article Summary Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Your name Your institution Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a disease that represents a heterogeneous group of patients with a similar set of symptoms…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER99% of users find it useful
Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome"

Download file to see previous pages This paper shall summarize the findings of a review article (Arebi, Gurmany, Bullas, Hobson, Stagg, & Kamm, 2008) that discussed the relationship of psychoneuroimmunology to the pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects about 10-15% of the world’s population. The characteristic features of the disease are intermittent bouts of abdominal pain, accompanied by abnormal stool frequency and/or consistency. Two main pathophysiologic mechanisms for IBD have been proposed: the first is the gut-directed model, which implicates enteric bacteria,immune activation, visceral hypersensitivity and gut dysmotility to interact and culminate in producing abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea. The second is the brain-directed model, which discusses psychoneuroimmunologic factors leading to development of IBS. There is a strong association between psychological disorders and IBS. Previous psychological trauma, depression, anxiety and personality disorders are frequent among IBS patients. IBS patients have increased activity in brain areas for affect and attention, which are also stimulated by noxious stimuli. Upon colorectal distention, they report feeling abdominal pain and the urge to defecate at much lower levels of distention compared to non-IBS subjects. At the same time, visceral neuro-sensory activity in IBS patients is normal. This suggests that IBS patients are hypersensitive to visceral stimuli, feeling pain even with innocuous levels of colonic distention. Studies have shown an association between symptoms of anxiety and depression and higher abdominal pain ratings, despite normal rectal sensory thresholds. A plausible theory suggested by these results is that visceral sensory neuronal impulses in the spinal cord are enhanced to heighten pain perception by cortical signals that stem from psychological distress. Colonic biopsies of IBS patients have shown an increased number of inflammatory and immune cells, as well as the presence of inflammatory cytokines, such as histamine, IL-1 and -6, in the gut wall. These cytokines directly increase visceral sensation and symptom severity of IBS by stimulating autonomic neurons. The increase in cytokine levels in IBS is attributed to genetic factors, such as a deficiency in the production of anti-inflammatory proteins such as IL-10. Previous gut infections induce an immunologic response and lead to cytokine release, which can continue un-mitigated in the absence of anti-inflammatory regulation. Furthermore, studies have shown that the presence of anxiety is associated with a heightened immunologic response to infection in the gut. Psychological stress also induces an increase in the permeability of gut epithelium by unknown mechanisms, permitting greater interaction between immune cells and gut bacteria, and thus more inflammation leading to onset of pain and diarrhea. This implies that individuals with a stressful personality and a genetic deficiency in anti-inflammatory regulation, would be likely to develop IBS after minor gut infections or upon psychological stress that normal individuals recover from completely. Animal studies have helped clarify the apparent interaction between the neural system, the immune system and enteric bacteria. Gut bacteria prevent infection ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Essay)
“Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Fetal alcohol syndrome

...?Teachers and FAS-diagnosed ment of the problem Dybdhal and Ryan (2009) conducted a study focusing on room practices for with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in recognizing through previous studies that not much has been done in schools to cater to the needs of these children. Although many efforts have been implemented to discourage mothers from consuming alcohol during their pregnancy, cases of children with FAS never seem to cease. Children with FAS have particular facial characteristics, and most demonstrate impaired learning abilities. Although FAS is seen as a leading cause of mental retardation, only approximately 20% are mentally retarded, which may explain evidences of behavior problems. In addition, these children...
2 Pages(500 words)Article

PWS: Prader-Willi Syndrome

...with distinguishing PWS from closely related Angelman syndrome in affected individuals. Central nervous system is majorly affected by this disease in particular hypothalamus. The development of central nervous system takes place as early as 3rd week in embryo in the form of neural tube with hypothalamus forming at 5th week. Later hypothalamus modifies and develops to form a hypothalamic endocrine axes responsible for the secretion of hormones. Characteristic GH insufficiency in PWS patients is attributed to hypothalmic dysfunction (Yearwood et al., 2011). This process continues after birth. Lungs, liver, intestinal tract and kidney also start to develop at the same time in embryo. Decreased fetal movement, abnormal fetal...
3 Pages(750 words)Article

Sexual Violence

...of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence were reported by women. Analyzing the report, one can see that this report highlights the heavy toll that sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence places on adults in this country. The report findings also underscore violence as a major public health burden and demonstrate how violence can have impacts that last a lifetime. For example, the results point out female victims of violence had a significantly higher prevalence of long-term health problems, including irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes, frequent headaches, chronic pain, and difficulty sleeping. Another noteworthy point is that nearly twice as many women...
2 Pages(500 words)Article


...Meta-analysis Meta-analysis Anomia treatment efficacy depending on aphasia type, severity, and therapy amount In the treatment of anomia, the meta-analysis evaluation was conducted which focused on the efficiency of therapy for anomia because of aphasia. It mainly focused on calculating the effect size of the therapy. The study focused moderator variables such as type of treatment, follow up measure, word set and time post onset. The results depicted a substantial distinction in effect size depending upon whether the confrontational naming task involved a trained or untrained word set or not. The purpose of this meta-analysis extends the previous research by evaluating these anomia studies to focus on the efficacy of treatment... Meta-analysis...
2 Pages(500 words)Article

Shaken Baby Syndrome Literature Review

...shearing or injury. Mild clinical signs may include, but not limited to, irritability, lethargy and poor feeding whereas severe signs may include shock, convulsion and unconsciousness. Also, frequent shaking leads to skeletal and eye injuries such as posterior rib fractures and bilateral or unilateral retinal haemorrhages respectively. Management, investigation and diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome entail skeletal survey and thorough investigation in ascertaining imposed injury. Emergency management would be provided in the case of an unknown cause in a seriously unconscious infant. Such management includes the provision of life support and the engagement of social services and the police so as to...
2 Pages(500 words)Article

Guillain-Barr Syndrome

...Guillain-Barre Syndrome Affiliation Guillain-Barre Syndrome Article Analysis Having its roots in the neuromuscular system with immediate spread of the symptoms to the body, Guillain-Barre Syndrome(GBS) is an autoimmune disease that often masquerade as paralytic disease during its initial establishment in the body. Many researchers have conducted and analyzed quite a number of researchers seeking to make clarifications on how the disease spreads into the body, how it relates with other systems and so on. However, sometimes it may take long to conduct a prospective or retrospective study, as the prevalence of the condition is quite low; hence problems in sampling up a population. In his...
1 Pages(250 words)Article


... Sibling relationship and birth order Sibling rivalry is a common phenomenon among growing children as evident by the twoexamples of Andy and Jamie as well as that of Sandra and Sally. It is a profound truth that siblings bear a lot of influence on each other which can lead to positive or negative development between them. They are able to sort out issues among them through various means which some can be fights, quarrels, struggles reasoning out together as was witnessed in the case of Andy and Jamie. Siblings can easily learn deeper lessons from each other more than how they can learn or interact with their parents. In the developed world, older siblings are mandated to take care of their younger siblings in circumstances where... Sibling...
1 Pages(250 words)Article


...Summary “Computers and the Pursuit of Happiness” by David Gelernter It is interesting to read a paper from an authority on computers, like David Gelerenter, which argues about the benefits of computers for the human kind pursuing happiness. The author suggests that people are no better off now than they were six or seven years back. Three arguments that are prominent in this article relate to the use of computers resulting in a new age and lifestyle. The arguments put forward by the author include questions about capacity of computers to initiate data creation in the form of information and store the same while delivering it to the desired destination. The second question that the author discusses is the capability of...
1 Pages(250 words)Article


... Equal Employment Opportunities Abercrombie and Fitch Stores are clothing retail shops that operate several clothing lines, and each store has a Look Policy that all employees need to follow. Samantha Elauf is a Muslim, and her religion allows her to wear headscarf of which is against Abercrombie’s dressing code. Therefore, Abercrombie refused to employ her for breaching their dressing policy. According to the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC), Abercrombie violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Acts. The Commission decided to sue Abercrombie on behalf of Samantha Elauf for failing to hire her. The Commission’s argument is that, Abercrombie practiced intentional discrimination for failing to accommodate Elauf’s... Equal...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Plummer Vinson Syndrome

...Plummer Vinson Syndrome Abstract Plummer Vinson Syndrome is characterized by trio of symptoms – dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia and esophageal web. It is commonly seen in adults, more prevalent in females and rarely seen in children or adolescent. Patient demonstrates symptoms such as pallor, fatigue, weakness tachycardia with difficulty in swallowing solid food. Esophageal web is painless. As exact etiology for this syndrome is not clear, iron deficiency anemia is considered to be the primary cause for web formation. These cases are treated first with iron replacement therapy and mechanical dilatation of the occluded esophagus and if required curetting is done. Plummer Vinson...
4 Pages(1000 words)Article
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Article Summary: Psychoneuroimmunology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome for FREE!

Contact Us