Name University Course Tutor Analysis of variations in the spirometry results by general practitioners and hospital based services Spirometry is an indispensable tool for the detection and management of chronic obstructive disease in primary health care practices…
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This may become difficult to achieve as the test procedures are often undertaken in infrequent settings (Standardizations of spirometry, 1994). For reproducibility in the spirometry results comprehensive training, reliability of the equipment and, well standardized measurement procedures are crucial and without any one of these dynamics, variations in the results of the spirometry are bound to occur (John, Bulton, Walter, Baker, 2006). In this project I will explore and analyze the variations that occur in the results of spirometry under different circumstances of use. In particular, I will focus on how these variations are influenced as well as different factors affecting these discrepancies. Such a study will give insights on the working of spirometry, a testing procedure that is rapidly gaining popularity and acceptance. The study will also test its usefulness and its weaknesses or flaws. It is also unclear that whether physicians are following any kind of guidelines or using other patient characteristics to determine when to use this technique for accurate results, which ultimately reflects upon the unreliability of the results obtained from spirometry based on practice differences (JOO, FITZGIBBON, & LEE, 2011.) Misdiagnosis resulting from inadequate spirometry test procedures can lead to inappropriate treatment and suboptimal patient outcomes. To promote optimal patient management and treatment, increase awareness of the differences between testing procedures or factors affecting the results of the procedure are to be determined ( Tinkelman , Price, Nordyre, Halbert, 2006). COPD is a condition which worsens with time and leads to decline in lung function and more than half of the COPD patients are often misdiagnosed as Asthma patients(National heart, lung and, blood institute, 2003), that is why it tends to be underdiagnosed and under treated Top of Form(JOO,FITZGIBBON, & LEE, 2011.) As spirometry depends on cooperation between the subject and the examiner, thus it depends on both technical as well as personal factors. If this variability can be diminished and results accuracy can be improved, then abnormalities can be more easily detected. (Miller, 2005) Top of Form Literature review: Spirometry is used in a variety of venues ranging from small clinical settings to large testing facilities for both screening and clinical evaluations. Physicians or other health care staff conduct the tests, help others in conducting it or just evaluate the results. But results of this testing procedure depend upon multiple factors and if any of these factors are affected the results are flawed or wrongly reduced leading to misdiagnosis (Townsend,2011). In some studies, it was observed that most relevant spiromtric results measured by general practitioners were comparable to those measured in pulmonary function laboratories. (Schemer, Jacobs, Hartman, Folgering, Bottema &,Van).In another study, positive effects of training on the spirometry test results were estimated, this study also stated that spirometry in general practice does not satisfy the full criteria for acceptability and reproducibility. (Eaton, Garette, Mercer, Whitlock & Rea, 1999) But these studies were conducted as a research exercise so the findings may have some of its limitations. (SCHERMER TR, CROCKETT AJ, POELS PJ, VAN DIJKE JJ, AKKERMANS RP, VLEK HF, & PIETERS,2009). One study aimed to identify the
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The significance and critical importance of the advantages associated with spirometry are undeniably acclaimed all over the globe since it is considered to be the most common of all the pulmonary function tests by expert physicians and clinical medicine researchers.
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