Urinary Tract Infections - Research Paper Example

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The urinary tract is made up of the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. While urinary tract infections normally affect the bladder and urethra, which is the lower urinary tract, it is possible for any part of the urinary tract to be infected…
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Urinary Tract Infections
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Download file to see previous pages Furthermore, there are also three types of urinary tract infections, with each one affecting a certain organ, and they are as follows: urethritis is when the urethra is affected, cystitis is when the bladder is affected, and pyelonephritis is when the infection has traveled up the ureters and attacks the kidneys. The most common causative agent of urinary tract infections is uropathogenic Escherichia coli, or E. coli. However, there are also more rare causative agents in regard to urinary tract infections, and they include Proteus mirabilis, S. Aureus, S. saprophyticus, Group B streptococci, Enterococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Proteus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The causative agents vary based on the types of urinary tract infections, which are cystitis, urethritis, and pyelonephritis, as well as the gender affected by the infection. While these causative agents arise on a few occasions, since E. coli is the most frequent causative agent, it will receive the most attention in this report. E. coli is a “Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (Manning, 2005).”The majority of E. coli strains are innocuous, with the harmless strains providing the body with vitamin K2 and hindering the formation of pathogenic bacteria inside the intestine, but there are serotypes that are capable of causing illnesses or infections. E. coli bacterium are a typical part of the normal flora of the intestines, though strains are capable of becoming virulent, which prompts the development of urinary tract infections. The urinary tract is the most typical site of E. coli infections, with approximately 90% of all urinary tract infections being caused by E. coli strains (Madappa, 2011). The sole portal of entrance for bacteria in both males and females is the urethra, but due to a male’s anatomy, they have a more difficult time in developing a urinary tract infection. Women are more susceptible to developing a urinary tract infection due to the ease at which the bacteria can enter the urethra and gradually move its way into the bladder as the urethra is within close proximity of the vagina and the anus. The most common mode of transmission is when an individual, after urinating or a bowel movement, wipes from back to front, which spreads bacteria from the anus to the urethra. Sexual intercourse can also transfer bacteria from the anal-vaginal area to the urethra, which has prompted many doctors to label urinary tract infections as sexually transmitted diseases, though this is seldom the case. There are many methods in which a urinary tract infection can be developed. As aforementioned, the bacteria E. coli plays a large role. When an individual does not wipe properly after a bowel movement, they risk spreading E. coli from the rectum to the urethra. Pregnancy can cause a urinary tract infection during a vaginal birth, which can “cause trauma to the bladder, preventing urine from being expelled (Mobley &Warren, 1996).” Menopause brings about changes in hormones that have the ability to cause physical changes, thus making it easier for a woman to develop a urinary tract infection. Finally, a person can develop a urinary tract infection if they have kidney stones, which can block the bladder, preventing urination. The signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection differ depending on where the infection is located and how ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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