The urinary tract is made up of the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. While urinary tract infections normally affect the bladder and urethra, which is the lower urinary tract, it is possible for any part of the urinary tract to be infected…
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Furthermore, there are also three types of urinary tract infections, with each one affecting a certain organ, and they are as follows: urethritis is when the urethra is affected, cystitis is when the bladder is affected, and pyelonephritis is when the infection has traveled up the ureters and attacks the kidneys. The most common causative agent of urinary tract infections is uropathogenic Escherichia coli, or E. coli. However, there are also more rare causative agents in regard to urinary tract infections, and they include Proteus mirabilis, S. Aureus, S. saprophyticus, Group B streptococci, Enterococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Proteus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The causative agents vary based on the types of urinary tract infections, which are cystitis, urethritis, and pyelonephritis, as well as the gender affected by the infection. While these causative agents arise on a few occasions, since E. coli is the most frequent causative agent, it will receive the most attention in this report. E. coli is a “Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (Manning, 2005).”The majority of E. coli strains are innocuous, with the harmless strains providing the body with vitamin K2 and hindering the formation of pathogenic bacteria inside the intestine, but there are serotypes that are capable of causing illnesses or infections. E. coli bacterium are a typical part of the normal flora of the intestines, though strains are capable of becoming virulent, which prompts the development of urinary tract infections. The urinary tract is the most typical site of E. coli infections, with approximately 90% of all urinary tract infections being caused by E. coli strains (Madappa, 2011). The sole portal of entrance for bacteria in both males and females is the urethra, but due to a male’s anatomy, they have a more difficult time in developing a urinary tract infection. Women are more susceptible to developing a urinary tract infection due to the ease at which the bacteria can enter the urethra and gradually move its way into the bladder as the urethra is within close proximity of the vagina and the anus. The most common mode of transmission is when an individual, after urinating or a bowel movement, wipes from back to front, which spreads bacteria from the anus to the urethra. Sexual intercourse can also transfer bacteria from the anal-vaginal area to the urethra, which has prompted many doctors to label urinary tract infections as sexually transmitted diseases, though this is seldom the case. There are many methods in which a urinary tract infection can be developed. As aforementioned, the bacteria E. coli plays a large role. When an individual does not wipe properly after a bowel movement, they risk spreading E. coli from the rectum to the urethra. Pregnancy can cause a urinary tract infection during a vaginal birth, which can “cause trauma to the bladder, preventing urine from being expelled (Mobley &Warren, 1996).” Menopause brings about changes in hormones that have the ability to cause physical changes, thus making it easier for a woman to develop a urinary tract infection. Finally, a person can develop a urinary tract infection if they have kidney stones, which can block the bladder, preventing urination. The signs and symptoms of a urinary tract infection differ depending on where the infection is located and how
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(Urinary Tract Infections Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Urinary Tract Infections Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/nursing/1439299-urinary-tract-infections.
In our body, there are preventive mechanisms like the lining of the bladder, antimicrobial properties of urine, etc. Even then the bacterium enters through external mediums or proliferates in the bladder and other regions, leading to acute infection. One of the external mediums, through which or because of which the incidence of UTI increase is Foley Catheters, used to drain urine, when normal urination is not possible due to some medical conditions.
Emerging diseases are then categorized as newly emerging diseases, deliberately emerging and re-emerging diseases on the basis of their course or incidence and the occurrence according to time and place (L.Guerrant et al 2011). Recent researches and studies have brought into light many emerging infectious diseases which are both a serious threat to human health and require medical interventions and preventive measures.
Studies have shown that nurses have a significant role to play in preventing the HAIs since these negatively impact on the welfare of different people who may be affected. Mandatory and voluntary surveillance schemes are effective in dealing with the problem associated with HAIs and these should be properly implemented by the nurses.
In North Memorial Health Care, Brooklyn, research shows that of all urinary tract infections, the use of catheters account for about 45% (Rane and Dasgupta). This shows that it is a very infectious condition. The urinary catheter is a tube which is inserted into the bladder and connected to the urethra so as to help in draining urine.
The risk of acquiring bacteriuria (bacteria in urine) increases with time, from approximately 5% per day during the first week of hospitalization to nearly 100% in 4 weeks. It has been estimated that 1-4% of bacteriuric patients will ultimately develop clinically significant bacteraemia with a case fatality of 13-30%.
Recently, the rise of the infection rates raised an alarm in the medical field. They have caused a high mortality rate in a number of nations, which affects the population growth of the affected countries. In addition, the cost of
énez-Alcaide, E.; García-González, L.; Guerrero-Ramos, F.; Pérez-Cadavid, S.; Arrébola-Pajares, A.; Sopeña-Sutil, R.;, Benítez-Salas, R.; Díaz-González, R. & Tejido-Sánchez, A. (2013). Healthcare-associated infections in a department of urology: Incidence and patterns
The author states that besides the indwelling catheter, however, nosocomial urinary tract infections can result from contaminated beddings that cause direct entry of microorganisms. The danger of the situation is that with the repeated emptying of the urinary bag and handling of the catheters, there is risk of a rise of the infection.
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