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Urinary tract infections are the most common illnesses among children. The condition causes distress to the child owing to the negative symptoms. If not treated, urinary tract infections can result to permanent kidney damage (Fisher et al., 2015). Normally, urinary tract infections develop when the pathogens present in the urine, and those which have colonized the periurethral region ascend into the bladder through the urethra. From the bladder, the pathogens can spread further up into the kidneys and sometimes into the bloodstream. Some of the factors that may facilitate entry of bacteria into the bladder include voiding dysfunction, catheterization, sexual intercourse and genital manipulation (Fisher et al., 2015). Poor hygiene can also predispose one to urinary tract infections.
Based on the case study, the patient may be having the recurrent infections due to poor hygiene. She uses the same bedroom with her younger siblings, and hygiene may be questionable in such a situation. More information should be gathered on her sexual experiences to determine if she was molested or sexually abused. The fact that she has had three consequent infections in the past six months also raises the need to investigate the situation further. The recurrent infection may also point to mis-diagnosis by the health professionals who previously evaluated her. As a result, she will be required to present documentation on her past illness to enable the physicians determine the correct plan of action. Also, it has been shown that uropathogenic Escherichia coli is linked to recurrent and persistent urinary tract infections (Tapiainen et al., 2011).
Lab tests: Urine samples will be required for lab testing to determine the pathogen causing the infection, and the appropriate choice of medication. Escherichia coli is a causative agent, accounting for a large majority of urinary tract infections in children (Albert et
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