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Ethics - Assignment Example

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Genetics’ role in healthcare of patients: Ethics (Name) (University) (Course) (Tutor) Genetic manipulation/ modification Genetic modification also called genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of an organism’s genome through the use of modern DNA technology…
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Download file to see previous pages... The common form of genetic manipulation involves the insertion of new genetic material to a place that’s not specified in the host genome. This is done by isolating and copying the genetic material of interest by using molecular cloning methods in order to come up with a DNA sequence that contain the necessary genetic elements for expression. The construct is then inserted into the host organism. There exist other forms of genetic engineering such as gene targeting and knocking out of specific genes through engineered nucleases (Lemaux, 2006). Cloning though not considered genetic engineering or modification is closely related and genetic engineering has been seen to be used within it. Synthetic biology on the other hand is a discipline that is emerging where there is an introduction of artificially synthesized genetic material from raw materials into an organism. There are many resultants of genetic manipulations. When genetic materials from other species of organisms are added to a host the outcome is called a transgenic. When genes from same species that can interbreed are added to the result is a cisgenic. When genetic material is used to remove genetic material from another organism it results in a knockout organism (Lemaux, 2006). The process of genetic manipulation The first stage in genetic engineering is isolation of the gene. ...
The third stage is called gene targeting where the gene is inserted in the host genome. The most common technique for doing his is random placement. Other techniques involve placing the gene in specific locations. Gene targeting uses is known to use homologous recombination to target desired changes to a specified endogenous gene (Beardmore & Porter, 2003). The fourth stage is called transformation and this is where the DNA is moved into an organism thereby altering its genotype or genetic makeup. There are various types of transformations but the most common is the Microinjection-injecting the DNA directly into the cell nucleus using an ultrafine needle. The fifth stage is called selection where the transformed cells are differentiated from the untransformed cells. If a given cell has been transformed successfully it usually contains a marker gene. The selection is done by growing the cell in a chemical that marks the cells that express that gene. The sixth stage is called regeneration where the organism is grown from the single transformed cell. In plants it is done through tissue culture while in animals it is done in embryonic cells. The last stage is confirmation and this is where the organism is analyzed to ensure that the genes will be expressed in an appropriate manner in the tissues of the organism. All the above seven steps are followed for successful genetic manipulation (Beardmore & Porter, 2003). Genetic safety There are many safety concerns that are brought about by genetically modified organisms. This has made studies be undertaken in this area to ascertain the extent to which the genetically modified organisms are safe in our environment or are safe for our consumption ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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