This paper “Imogene King Theory of Goal Attainment” critically analyses the theory, providing in-depth information about its concepts, paradigms, systems, and processes. The paper has also provided an application of the theory for nurse administrators…
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Her success comes from her nursing conceptual system and the goal attainment goal. King developed this theory while trying to summarize a new graduate program content. Its basic purpose is to aid patients to achieve, maintain or regain their health. Her theory assumes that the focus in nursing is caring for human beings, while its goal is individual and group healthcare. According to this theory, human beings continuously interact with their environment, basically because humans are open systems (George, 2008). She links the theory to goal attainment, which assumes that communication between a nurse and a client results in information gathering, which helps them set mutual goals and aids in acting on the goals. She argues that everyone recognizes the world as a total person in formulating transactions between the environment and the individual. The transaction in this theory refers to the interaction between the “perceiver” and the object perceived. In this transaction, the “person” gets into the position as an active participant, after which each is transformed from the experiences. Nurse-client interaction leads to certain assumptions. The first assumption is that the interaction between the two is influenced by their respective perceptions. The client and nurse’ goals and values influence the interaction process, clients have a right to information concerning them, clients should participate in decisions that have an impact on their lives, community, and health, and finally, that it is normal for clients and nurses’ goals to be incongruent. Human beings have three crucial health needs; the need for health information, care services to prevent illness and care services when they are unable to help themselves. This theory has two major concepts; the Interacting and the concepts provided for each system. The interacting systems include personal systems, interpersonal systems and the social system (Wills and McEwen, 2002). 2.0 Point by point Critical analysis of the theory 2.1 Major concepts Concepts for personal systems includes perception, self, growth, and development, body image, space and time. Interpersonal system concepts include interaction, communication, transaction, role, and stress. Finally, the social system concept includes organization, authority, power, status and decision making. King defines perception as a concept, which influences the overall behavior of a human being. Ultimately, it is the concept upon which all other relationships too. Perception is also a process where an individual obtains personal data through his or her senses, and from which, the individual organizes his or her memory interprets it and transforms the obtained data. The “self” characteristics refer to the dynamic individual, whose is motivated to achieve their goals by several open systems. The self-includes feelings and thoughts that are linked to the individual’s awareness of being an independent person. The thoughts and feelings also influence the individual’s perception of him/herself. The characteristics of body image are subjective, dynamic, learned and very personal. The body image characteristics usually change over time in relation to the individual’s redefinition of the self. Space, on the other hand, is a universal concept, whose definition depends on the individual. It is difficult to define space because culture influences an individual understands of space.
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