Download file to see previous pages...
At present, Italy’s healthcare system is financed through different measures, although it is primarily financed through general tax revenues (Maio & Manzoli, 2002, p.304). The National Health Fund (NHF) provides the major financing for public health care. The NHF is yearly apportioned to Italy’s twenty regions, which, in turn, distribute resources to the Local Health Agencies (LHAs). Donatini et al. (2001) cited several public and private revenue sources of Italy’s healthcare system: a regional tax on economic activities, general taxation, other regional taxes, users’ co-payments and private financing (p.35). By 1999, private financing sources already made up 33% of the total health care expenditure (Donatini et al., 2001, p.35). This created a more privatized form of healthcare financing, with increasing dependence on private providers and more out-of-pocket payments. Healthcare Administration For Italy, the primary healthcare institution is the Ministry of Health, which oversees the National Health Fund (Donatini et al., 2001, p.21). The National Health Fund provides financing for the national healthcare system. The Ministry of Health, via its departments and services, accomplishes five various roles: health care planning; health care financing; framework regulation; monitoring; and general governance of the National Institutes for Scientific Research (IRCCS – Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico) (Donatini et al., 2001, p.21). Furthermore, regional governments, through their related health departments, aim to follow the national objectives set by the National Health Plan at the regional level (Donatini et al., 2001, p.23). ...
Regional health departments are mandated to deliver the healthcare benefit package to the population through a system of local health units and public and private accredited hospitals and clinics (Donatini et al., 2001, p.23). Local health units are geographically-oriented organizations that assess healthcare needs and provide comprehensive care to local target populations (Donatini et al., 2001, p.25). Access and Inequality Issues It is hard to determine access and inequality issues in Italy, because its law states comprehensive healthcare coverage for all their citizens. Mostly likely then, the uninsured ones in both countries are the illegal immigrants, who have to pay for their healthcare expenses through their pockets. Italy aims for a comprehensive public healthcare insurance system but recent deregulation efforts increase private funding and out-of-pocket expenses. Italy has comparable healthcare indicators with Iceland (World Health Organization, 2011). Italy’s regional division of average immunization rates shows that total coverage is “higher in the north than the south” (Donatini et al., 2001, p.61). Furthermore, coverage rates percentage for compulsory vaccinations are better than the recommended ones (Donatini et al., 2001, p.61). For instance, the immunization for measles is 75% for Italy and 100% for Iceland (Donatini et al., 2001, p.62). Conclusion In terms of financing, Italy has a government-financing-dominated healthcare system. Increasing deregulation and privatization, however, increases private financing of the healthcare system. Access problems are based on location and socio-economic status. References Donatini, A.,
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
But it takes more resources off from the national economy to support and sustain health objectives that ensure the delivery of health care services are equitably accessed and availed.The aim is proposed to be achieved through initially presenting the current status of health care in the U.S. prior to delving into the intricate issues.
It also determines the manner in which money coming in and out of the entrepreneurship is handled and the manner of taxation. There exist basically four business forms of business. These are cooperatives, corporations, partnerships and sole proprietorships.
Basically, the operating budget would proportionate and apportion funds to various sectors of the hospital’s operations. But it is worth noting that the usefulness of the healthcare operating budget is only complemented and achieved if some of the key practices that hinder the successful and effective creation and monitoring of the operating budget are identified.
There are numerous factors and variables to account for, all of which constitute the general performance of the health sector. Two of the most notable factors or variables in the health care setting are physician-patient and hospital-patient relationships.
The negligence may cause damage or death to the patient. In order to diagnose the cause of the complaints, the chief operating officer should establish that: the healthcare officers owed a duty of care to the complaining patients; there was a violation of that obligation.
However, the Economic and Monetary Union of these European nations have created the recent economic crisis, which commenced in 2008. Italy, as one of its Member States, has been facing a serious economic downturn, and it is projected to last until the next two consecutive years.
One of these bills is the Healthcare Bill 1003 that was created by the Mississippi state in 2012 (Wolf, 2001). In analyzing this legislative bill and its impact to the economy of the country, this essay seeks to evaluate the equity of resources allocation as it explains why the bill should be passed in the modern times.
Particularly, the distribution of public employment acts as the main channel through which public resources become redistributed from the wealthier North to the less well-off South (Vuri, 2008 pp. 807). Real wages remain higher at the
For example, according to United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) there were more 165000 irregular refugees trying to enter Europe through the Mediterranean sea in the first nine months of 2014 (Peter, 2014, para. 5). The increased migrations can be attributed to economic factors and mainly conflicts in home countries.
There are outpatient centers in 16 states and six health plans. An extra accountable twelve care networks and Conifer Health Solutions are also operated. The Conifer Health Solutions provide business process services in the
1 Pages(250 words)Term Paper
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Term Paper on topic Healthcare Financing in Italy for FREE!