An Assessment on the Deforestation in Indonesia Introduction On December 2004, the world was shocked by a great undersea quake into the coastal areas of Sumatra, Indonesia. The killer quake spread its massive waves into the coastal communities across south and east Asia (BBC News, 2011)…
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The 52-second tremor left 5, 700 lives and damaged an estimated amount or US3.1 billion (Leitmann, 2007). These are just some of the examples from the growing list of disasters in Indonesia. At first glance, these disasters can be considered to be brought about by natural calamities, natural catastrophes that could be beyond anybody’s control. Taking a closer look however on Indonesia’s environmental policies, many issues can be clarified and a lot of questions can be answered. This paper delves on the environmental condition including the policies of Indonesia with specific focus on deforestation. Country profile Republic of Indonesia is an archipelagic country in the South East Asian region with the land area of 1.9 million sq km (BBC News, 2011). Indonesia’s terrain is mainly coastal lowlands and its larger islands have interior mountains (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). Indonesia is highly diverse ethnicity with more than 300 local languages (BBC News, 2011). As of this year, Indonesia has a recorded population of more than 245 million. According to the data of Central Intelligence Agency, it has an urban population of 44 percent as of year 2010 and the rate of urbanization goes at 1.5 percent rate of change for the year 2010-2011. Indonesia is endowed with rich natural resources such as petroleum, gold, silver, coal, natural gas, nickel, and copper among others. Most of its land area is also arable and fertile soil. On the other hand, Indonesia is also home for the most volcanoes in the world, some 76 are historically active (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). In spite of being a highly agricultural country, only 16. 5 percent (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011) of Indonesia’s labor force is in the agricultural sector. The industrial sector dominates the labor force with 46.4 percent (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011) followed by services with 37.1 percent (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). This set-up of the labor force can be traced back during the 1970s when Indonesia started the development of its wood-processing industries maximizing its forests that comprise 84 percent of its total land area. From then on, Indonesia’s production capacity of pulp and paper industries has increased immensely by almost 700 percent, thus, it is now one of the world’s largest pulp and paper producer. Forest-related industry in Indonesia was further expanded in the decades of 1980s and 1990s by the government. However, these expansions went underway without any sustainable forest management system thus resulted to the acceleration of forest loss in the country. Status of deforestation Deforestation from a layman’s point of view is simply an act of cutting down trees in forest and rain forests. Usually, these are through logging or burning of trees. However, the act of systematically cutting down trees to pave the way for industrial plantations that support the pulp and paper industries or clearing forests to convert them into crop plantation such as palm oil or opening up to mining industries, the simple act elevates to exploitation and deforestation becomes seriously destructive. Conversion to plantations The rate of forest loss is growing fast. In 1980, about 1 million hectare per year was cleared. This accelerated in the first half of the1990s with an average of 1.7 million hectares and by 1996 onwards, the average has grown as high as 2 million hectares (Four Corners,
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“Deforestation in Indonesia Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/nursing/1427944-deforestation-in-indonesia.
Even though global leaders are aware of the seriousness of this problem, they are showing reluctance in taking remedial actions because of the concerns about the loss of revenues. It is necessary to protect forests to protect life on earth.
There are more than 200 ethnic groups in the country, composed of the Muslims mentioned and other minorities of Hindus, Christians and Buddhists. There are also Chinese minorities in the country, who are discriminated against as much as the Jews in the country.
Indonesia has a land area of 1,904,569 square kilometers. A country exploding with energy, on Indonesia’s landmass rests more than 76 volcanoes, the majority of them active. Rich natural resources place Indonesia in an enviable position with petroleum, coal, gold, silver and natural gas as a few of the revenue-earning exports.
Charcoal burning, mining and hydro-production have also led to deforestation but the impact is less destructive. Deforestation has been increasing due to the increased search for land for agriculture, meaning that land is being used for agricultural purposes at the expense of forest.
Flourishing of Cuban society is possible under conditions of natural welfare. Key words: deforestation, forests, reforestation, forests. Introduction The importance of forests in the lives of humans cannot be denied. Forests are natural resources, absorbing dioxide, producing oxygen and extracting dust.
worked to distribute aid to survivors of that earthquake (Sidel 274). The MMI initiated its work from the ?Iskandar Muda Air force base in Banda Aceh city under the leadership of Abu Bakar Bashir. ?The activists having links with Bashir followed him not only on political grounds but also joined ?
The riots were first associated with political issues, before developing to serious uprising that saw Indonesian Chinese ethnicity humiliated, with specific areas of Jakarta, Medan, solo, and areas of Surabaya strongly affected (Panggabean and Smith 231).
Environmentalists and ecologists pay a special attention to Brazilian Amazon and deforestation which has a great impact on global ecology and air quality.
Deforestation, largely for logging and wood-fuel purposes, is common in South America. The main causes of deforestation in this region are agricultural development, expansion of mining and logging (for instance, gold and diamond mines in Venezuela), cattle ranching, migration of farmers who occupy new land, opium and soybean farming, and transpiration (Margulis 27).
But sadly, these rainforests are struggling. These intricate and abundant ecosystems, which have endured thousands of environmental changes, are currently confronting the threat of extinction. Human activities, rather than natural
s, equipment and machinery, agricultural products like timber, coffee and cocoa, minerals such as tin, nickel and copper (Indonesia Country Monitor, 2012). The export markets include Japan, United States of America and china which accounts for greater exports for raw materials.
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