Applied Anatomy and Physiology (Case Study) Course: Instructor: Institution: Date: Applied Anatomy and Physiology (Case Study) The term physiology can be defined as the dynamic study of life and basically describes the vital functions of living beings inclusive of organs, cells and molecules…
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Physiology can be grouped into several categories depending on what the physiologists are studying (Marieb and Hoehn 2009, p.317). In this particular approach, physiology is viewed in terms of medical aspect. This particular category focuses on human body functioning dependent on individual organ systems. These organ systems are in turn dependent on component functioning of the various cells in the system. The underlying cellular components are further studied at sub cellular levels so as to ascertain the interactions at cellular and molecular levels. As a result, medical physiology gains an integrated outlook of the human body. This is done with a view of understanding events at the cellular, molecular and organ levels. It is in this perspective that physiology has been attributed as the mother of several biological sciences including neuroscience, biochemistry and biophysics. This suggests that physiology has limited boundaries to other disciplines hence can be termed as multidisciplinary. In this case study, we find the correlation between biochemistry and clinical medicine extremely important in the case o a patient having tonsillectomy (Marieb and Hoehn 2009, p.298) Anatomy is the branch of medicine that deals with the morphology of body organs. In this case study, the organ system that comes into play is the lymphatic system which plays a crucial role in immunity. Cells within the lymphatic system are organized into tissues and organs and can be grouped into three main categories. This classification is done on the basis of their levels of arrangement or encapsulation of the tissues to the connective tissue. The first category comprises of dispersed bundles of lymphatic cells that are without a capsule. This form of lymphatic tissue is exemplified by macrophages and lymphocytes. They are linked to fiber network. This group of lymphatic tissues occurs within the middle layer of the mucus membranes termed lamina propria. This covering plays a role in lining respiratory and gastrointestinal regions (Shier, Butler and Lewis 2012, p.212). The second group comprises the organs that contain circulative lymphatic cells and lymph nodules which are capsulated and connected to the dense connective tissue. The third group which forms the focus of the case study consists of distinct bundles of lymphatic cells referred to as lymphatic nodules. A distinctive feature of this group of cells is the lack of capsules within their membranes. Additionally, these packs of cells possess clear demarcations which separate them from adjacent cells. They have a wide range of distribution within the human body and this explains their importance in immune responses. They are found within the lamina propria of mucus secreting coverings and line respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts. Generally they are called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue abbreviated as MALT. Lymphatic nodules or follicles secrete macrophages and lymphocytes which are protective towards pathogens which interfere with passages of urine, air and gut. Lymph nodes can occur as solitary nodules or they can be clustered into aggregates. Some of the most common clusters of lymph nodes include Peyer’s patches which are basically aggregates of the mucosa which lines the small intestines (Van Putte, Regan and Russo 2012, p.372). The second group of clustered lymph nodes is tonsils which basically occur within the
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