An Evaluation of the Planning and Delivering of Nursing Care - The Case of a Patient who is at the Risk of Developing Transient Ischaemic Stroke - Student ID Number & Code Date Total Number of Words: 3,000 Introduction Ischaemic stroke, a.k.a…
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Considering the case of the patient, this study will discuss the importance of health promotion / health prevention, the acute management of ischemic stroke, and other nursing consideration whilst living with or managing the long-term health condition of the patient. Health Promotion / Health Prevention Aspect Health promotion aims to educate the patients not only on how they can effectively prevent the onset of a disease but also ways on how they can improve their overall well-being (Leddy, 2006, p. 24). Considering the case of the 52-year old patient, this study will focus on discussing the health promotion or health prevention related to ischaemic stroke. Primary Prevention Ischaemic stroke happens in case the brain artery is blocked (Stroke Association, 2012). This causes the blood supply unable to circulate in the brain. According to Wills (2007, p. 16), the three levels of health prevention includes: the primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. In line with this, primary prevention is all about implementing some strategies that could effectively reduce the risk of a disease. The risk factors of ischaemic stroke can be used to determine what specific health promotion should be advise to the patient. Ischaemic stroke can be triggered by several monogenic disorder (i.e. mutation in Notch 3 gene, etc.) (Hassan and Markus, 2000). Although genetic disorders that can lead to stroke can be hereditary by nature, most of the risk factors of stroke are highly modifiable. Since the modifiable risk factors associated with ischaemic stroke include: smoking, hypertension, diabetes, poor diet, atrial fibrillation, lack of exercise, and obesity among others (Ahmad and Lip, 2012; NHS, 2008; Sudlow, 2008; Goldstein et al., 2006), the nurses can provide a primary prevention by teaching the patient the importance of healthy eating (i.e. eat more fish, fruits and vegetables, leanmeat, whole grain, restriction on fat, sugar, and salt intake), include a 30-minutes of regular exercise each day or at least five (5) times each week, refrain from binge drinking and limit the intake of alcohol, and avoid or stop the use of tobacco (WHO, 2012; NHS, 2008). Through health teachings, the nurses can empower the patient through self-actualisation. After conducting a health teaching, the nurse can refer to patient to stop smoking clinics in case the patient is a smoker. In case the patient is at risk of stroke due to poor eating habits, the nurse can refer the patient to a professional nutritionist. Secondary Prevention The secondary prevention is all about shortening the incidence of stroke through early diagnosis and treatment (Wills, 2007, p. 16). Assuming that the patient has suffered from a mild stroke, the secondary prevention should include encouraging the patient to modify their lifestyle and receive early treatment. If the patient has a history of smoking, the nurse should educate and encourage the patient to stop smoking. Likewise, it is equally important for the nurse to encourage the patient to avoid alcohol consumption, watch his diet, and maintain his accepted body weight through regular exercise (Sudlow, 2008; Goldstein et al., 2006). On top of modifying the patient’s lifestyle, the nurse should encourage the patient to receive annual check-up and treatment for signs of risk factors related to the development of a vascular disease. Hyptertention is one of the common risk factors of ischemic
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