StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Compare or Contrast 2 philosophy thinkers - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Eighteenth century philosophers David Hume and Immanuel Kant lived at the height of the Enlightenment and both have greatly contributed to Western philosophy. Scottish philosopher David Hume was largely an empiricist while Kant had tenets that combined reason and intuition, and…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.2% of users find it useful
Compare or Contrast 2 philosophy thinkers
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Compare or Contrast 2 philosophy thinkers"

Differences between David Hume and Immanuel Kant Eighteenth century philosophers David Hume and Immanuel Kant lived at the height of the Enlightenment and both have greatly contributed to Western philosophy. Scottish philosopher David Hume was largely an empiricist while Kant had tenets that combined reason and intuition, and this is where all their differences lie.
Hume and Kant differed in their principles of epistemology. Based on Hume’s An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, no knowledge is possible except that of sensation derived through two sources: impressions and ideas. These impressions, which are actual sense perceptions, and ideas, which are copies of impressions, connect with one another to form complexities that explain all things. In short, for Hume, the only things that we can possibly know are the impressions that can be perceived by our senses and the ideas that we imagine after seeing the impressions (Hume, An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding 201). On the other hand, Kant theorizes that there are three ways or categories where knowledge of the relationship between two things, or subject and predicate, can be derived. These are the analytic a priori, the synthetic a posteriori, and the controversial synthetic a priori. Kant’s analytic a priori is knowing by definition, like believing that “All single people are people who have not married.” Kant’s synthetic a posteriori is like “Most sick people are given medicine,” which is merely a belief out of habit. Lastly, Kant’s synthetic a priori is believing something like “Some dead parents are remembered by their children,” which is a belief from intuition. These beliefs do not require proof as what Hume believed (Durant 269-271).
Another difference between Hume and Kant is on their ethical principles. According to Hume’s A Treatise on Human Nature and based on his epistemology, it is our feelings or sentiments that practically influence human volition and action. It is not reason but our feelings and sentiments produce our actions with the same habitual expectation that the future will result from the past. For Hume, morality is doing something because of an “enduring passion or trait of character in the agent” and without regard for any custom or reason (Cohon). On the other hand, based on Kant’s Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, morality is performing the categorical imperative: “Act only according to the maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law,” and to “act in such a way that [he should] treat humanity, whether in [his] own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end” (Sahakian & Sahakian 45). This means that it does not matter what the particular circumstances are, where and when they occur, and who is involved. What matters is that the imperative is performed.
One last difference between Hume and Kant is in their theodicy. For Hume, God is something impossible to prove by evidence and that nothing much can be said of Him. This is perhaps why Hume lived his whole life an agnostic. In Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, God, that is if ever He exists and that this condition is of extreme importance to his philosophy, is a God who must be beyond any form of human comprehension and therefore a God who must not necessarily adopt a human form and display human qualities (Smith). On the other hand, Kant believes that God must be a transcendental idea and therefore cannot be perceived through the human mind or senses. However, unlike Hume who required empirical evidence for God, Kant believed that “the idea of God so defined above” as something not subject to empirical tests and is “therefore meaningless” (Smith). Moreover, Kant treated God as “the highest possible unification of predicates, the sum total of all possibility,” thus somehow giving God a high position (Smith).
David Hume and Immanuel Kant may have lived in the same period in history but they both had different beliefs in their epistemology, ethics and theodicy. When it comes to epistemology, Hume believed only in empirical ideas and impressions while Kant believed that things can be known through intuition. In terms of ethics, Hume believed that emotion governed our actions while for Kant it must be duty and reason. In theodicy, Hume believed that God must be beyond comprehension unless He could be empirically proven, while for Kant, God is merely transcendental, meaningless and does not require any proof.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Works Cited
Cohon, Rachel. “Hume’s Moral Philosophy.” 2010. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 19 Oct 2010. Durant, Will. “Kant and German Idealism.” The Story of Philosophy: The Lives and Opinions of the World’s Greatest Philosophers from Plato to John Dewey. New York: Washington Square Press, 1961. Print.
Hume, David. “An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding.” Ten Great Works of Philosophy. Ed. Robert Paul Wolff. New York: Penguin Books Ltd., 1969. Print
Sahakian, William & Sahakian Mabel Lewis. Ideas of the Great Philosophers. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1966. Print.
Smith, B. D. Philosophy 2013: Modern Philosophy. 2012. Crandall University website. 7 Dec 2012. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Compare or Contrast 2 philosophy thinkers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Compare or Contrast 2 philosophy thinkers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1610998-compare-or-contrast-2-philosophy-thinkers
(Compare or Contrast 2 Philosophy Thinkers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Compare or Contrast 2 Philosophy Thinkers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1610998-compare-or-contrast-2-philosophy-thinkers.
“Compare or Contrast 2 Philosophy Thinkers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1610998-compare-or-contrast-2-philosophy-thinkers.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Compare or Contrast 2 philosophy thinkers

Compare / contrast

...?This is a comparison and contrast between Cinderella and Ashputtle. Both the stories are very similar with only minor differences which will be discussed below. Both the stories essentially follow the same storyline but there are some changes. Charles Perrault’s focuses on the simplicity and kind heartedness of Cinderella who never wishes badly for anyone. Her father is described as a weak individual and is not a prominent character in the story (Perrault). More focus is kept on Cinderella and her fairy Godmother. The Fairy Godmother keeps on telling Cinderella to be a good girl and Cinderella listens to her. Cinderella is shown as a very kind-hearted and innocent girl who always does good to others. Hence in the end Cinderella... her...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Compare and Contrast 2 articles

...by recreating it through art. “So God tired of all the possibilities that remained confined within Him, unexpressed, dormant, and as if dead. And God opened His mouth, and he spoke at length a word that was harmonious and rhythmical” (p. 49). Similarly, Du Bois reinforces the concept of a singular world without boundaries because all are created by one God. Yet out of this, he clarifies that there does exist a classification of races. “There does not stand today upon God’s earth a race more capable in muscle, in intellect, in morals, than the American Negro” (p, 13). This clearly indicates the significance of God in the lives of Black people, an influence that cannot be dismissed. (2) Senghor recognizes the influence of...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Compare and contrast 2 stories

...?Full Miss Brill and Good Country People Short stories are interesting especially when a reader is aware of the characteristics of such. There are certain things in a story that bring more meaning to it when an individual studies more closely the story in a way that many of its angles would be scrutinized and not just be understood as it is stated. Katherine Mansfield’s Miss Brill is a short story about a woman whose name is the story’s title, is to be compared and contrasted to Flannery O’Connor’s Good Country People in this paper. The comparisons will be following the terms in fiction stories as this author analyzes the stories. Miss Brill and Good Country People expose their characters in a descriptive manner, for the former... the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Saint Thomas Aquinas

...of Saint Thomas Aquinas within the domain of philosophy and will compare them to other more modern thinkers to gauge their standing. 2. Philosophy Saint Thomas Aquinas is considered as a Scholastic philosopher (Jordan, 2006) as well as a theologian by the thinkers who came after him. Within his life, Saint Thomas Aquinas did not consider himself to be a philosopher and was highly critical of philosophers. He considered philosophers as pagans for always “falling short of the true and proper wisdom to be found in Christian revelation” (Davies, 2004). Keeping this in context, the works of Saint Thomas Aquinas show limited reverence for...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper

Analysis of General Theories of History

...and influence in the history of political thought: the agency of influence and influence of agency. History of political thought, 31(2), pp.345-66. Fukuyama, F., 2006. The End of History and the Last Man. London: Free Press. Hampsher-Monk, I., 1993. A History of Modern Political Thought: Major Political Thinkers from Hobbes to Marx. London: Blackwell. Hegel, G.W.F., 1967. Hegel's Philosophy of Right. New York: Galaxy Books. Kant, I., 1991. Kant: Political Writings. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Murphy, J.G., 1994. KANT THE PHILOSOPHY OF RIGHT (Reprints of Scholarly Excellence). Mercer: Mercer University Press. Nakhimovsky, 2011. The Closed Commercial...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Compare and Contrast 2 literary works

.... In comparison with the Cajuns, the Creoles are considered to be socially, intellectually and culturally a superior race (Gaudet 78). The aristocracy rests with the Creoles, who are land owners in perfect contrast to the position of workers and labourers enjoyed by Cajuns in the then society. The Storm by Kate Chopin is a challenge to the cultural restrictions posed by both sex to certain stances that they cannot bond with each other in marriage thereby portraying the social classification which existed during that time. Bobinot is Calixta’s husband and Bibi’s father. The story describes him to be as an ‘embodiment of serious solitude’. The author also uses the word ‘stolid’ to describe Bobinot in the story. On the other...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper

Thinkers

...? Karl Marx Karl Marx Karl Marx, born on May 5, 1818, studied jurisprudence at Bonn and Berlin but his affiliation with philosophy turned him away from law very soon. He married the daughter of Privy Councillor von Westphalen in Trier and moved to Paris in the summer of 1843 where he committed himself chiefly to studying history of the great French Revolution and political economy. He pursued the same studies in Brussels after being expelled from France in 1845. He returned to Paris after being expelled once again by the Belgian government due to the fright created by the February Revolution. In the summer of 1849, he finally went to London after being expelled from Paris once again. Marx is considered to be is one of the founders... of the...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

MODERN FRENCH THINKERS-POLITICAL SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY

...the despotic aims of both classical republicanism and Christian faith. As evidenced in the quoted phrase, Montesquieus diagnosis calls for an equilibrium or balancing of all the passions and forces in political life, and he offers a judicialized constitutionalism as the crucial remedy for these problems. His notion of equilibrium or moderation thus defines these problems of politics and judging as the crucial solution. This science of the laws of equilibrium of both natural and political forces is one of the initial, outer layers of Montesquieus teaching in The Spirit of the Laws. 2) For all his advocacy of liberty and justice, Montesquieu remains fundamentally aristocrat. Discuss this statement with reference to...
36 Pages(9000 words)Essay

Compare & Contrast

..., and utilize male sexual energy as a distraction for what is taking place behind the scenes. Furthermore, the representation of class is one in which the viewer comes to the realization that the moneyed aristocracy/bureaucracy is the only mechanism through which the average societal stakeholder can hope to get ahead. As a direct result of this realization and portrayal, the protagonists of the film find it necessary to ingratiate themselves with these individuals as a means of pursuing this dream. Interestingly, the second film that will be discussed within this comparison and contrast, “All about My Mother”, represents a differential between those individuals that live within the provinces and those that live within...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Compare & contrast

...from the readers. In Chang’s writings, the author does not use sound devices. Thirdly, the use of sensory details and figurative language is another aspect of writing style that can be used to compare and contrast two or more authors. In general, both writers employ literally devices that appeal to the senses of the reader. Both writers extensively use similes in their writings. In Chang’s Lust Caution, examples of similes used include: “…through the glass doors like a sea dragon” (Chang, 28), “what sounded like Hindi upstairs” (Chang, 28) and “a nose squalled like a lion’s muzzle” (Chang, 30) among others. In Hsun’s Medicine, some of the similes used include “the man’s eyes shone…. like a famished...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Compare or Contrast 2 philosophy thinkers for FREE!

Contact Us