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History of Terrorism - Essay Example

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In France, the period of the French Revolution (1789 – 99) played a significant role in causing the people to realize the severe indifference of Bourbon kings whose extravagance and absolute authority kept them under an impoverished state of economy. Stirred by hatred and the…
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Historical Summary and Law Enforcement: France In France, the period of the French Revolution (1789 – 99) played a significantrole in causing the people to realize the severe indifference of Bourbon kings whose extravagance and absolute authority kept them under an impoverished state of economy. Stirred by hatred and the equivalent desire to regain social equality and liberty from economic oppression, French mass citizenry as well as their revolutionary supporters initiated notorious events which led to the so-called “Reign of Terror”. This marked the official point at which ‘terrorism’ prevailed over all of France in three major stages beginning with the election of Count Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes who represented the commoners whose grievances had been violently conveyed firsthand at the “Fall of the Bastille” (Zaide, 235). The rise of the radicals constituted the second stage of the Revolution until the ultimate act of terrorism which unveiled upon the guillotine execution of Louis XVI in December 1792 along with some 20,000 nobles, politicians, and other critical aristocratic figures. By the late 19th century, technological advancements in weaponry encouraged the formation of the anarchists in small groups following the chief advocacy of the “propaganda of the deed” which made possible the assassination of French leaders (238).
During the latter part of the 18th century, when the “Reign of Terror” prevailed, the French Republic decreed even for the rest of European nations to overthrow their despotic rulers and no law enforcements were available to combat or at least to regulate such proclamation and its corresponding actions. At the time, all the necessary legal duties were shifted to the control of the revolutionary government that sought total reform against monarchy so there had not been any legal defense that came to the aid of the ill-fated monarchs. It was not until the 19th century that an extensive campaign against terrorism flourished and this included the creation of RAID by the French Police Nationale with the principal objective of suppressing destructive crimes and terrorist activities (Early History of Terrorism). According to Kristin Archick’s CRS Report for Congress: “Among other steps, the EU (European Union) has established a common definition of terrorism and a list of terrorist groups, an EU arrest warrant, enhanced tools to investigate terrorist financing, and new measures to strengthen external EU border controls (Archick, 2006).”
Historical Summary and Law Enforcement: Italy
Italy, likewise, was struck by terrorism but not too long ago through the extremist groups whose members protested against the concept of globalization and capitalism. Students who were rigid proponents of Marxism and Leninism philosophies founded the “Red Brigades” in the 1970s at Bologna to terrorize the capitalist state with arms and their most notorious “Years of Lead” is well-known to have induced fright across Italy up to the 1980s in which several lives were claimed by the massive firing of bullets (Westcott, 2004). Contemporary terrorists comprising the Informal Anarchist Federation of the 21st century, however, are found rather to be milder in the execution of threats for according to investigative studies carried out, the movement proceeded in the absence of solid structure and conviction for Marxist principles. These groups are believed to have originated from the northern citizens who were dissatisfied with capitalist sectors of the society and are reported to have failed bombing schemes due to less organized tactics or mode of terrorism (Westcott).
EU officials had implemented measures to track down the culprits behind a number of letter bombs from the suspected anarchists. A few laws have been made and enacted as well to eradicate anarchism yet the inadequacy of regulatory tools and the manner of legal enactment typically result to poor outcomes of repression especially with high-spirited anarchists ready to advance the great communist anytime. When recent rebellion took place in Italy, the nature of violent attack was found to have been caused by accumulated grievances toward the country’s dramatic crisis in economy. To stop the ensuing anarchy, the Interior Minister at the time had assigned 18,000 law enforcement officers to counter the acts of shooting and other forms of aggression (Delaney, 2012). This further called for the establishment of convention by the national security committee in order to tighten vigilance and critical attention about manifestations of armed protests at different stages. Increased surveillance was also conducted to monitor facilities where schemes of conspiracies were allegedly held (Delaney).
References
Archick, Kristin (2006). “U.S. – EU Cooperation Against Terrorism.” CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from http://www.investigativeproject.org/documents/testimony/29.pdf
Delaney, Sarah (2012). “Fearing Anarchist Attacks, Italy Tightens Security.” World Now Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/world_now/2012/05/fearing-anarchist-attacks-italy-tightens-security.html
“Early History of Terrorism.” Retrieved from http://www.terrorism-research.com/history/early.php
Westcott, Kathryn (2004). “Italy’s History of Terror.” BBC News Online. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3372239.stm
Zaide, Gregorio F. (1965). World History. Rex Bookstore Inc. Read More
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