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Historical and contemporary issue in aging-Death - Assignment Example

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During this period, individual body generates symptoms that are associated with old age and eventually death transpires. Numerous…
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Historical and contemporary issue in aging-Death
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Introduction Once individuals are born, aging starts at this period until the later stages in existence when the bodyhas been subjected to optimum degradation. During this period, individual body generates symptoms that are associated with old age and eventually death transpires. Numerous issues and facts are associated with aging at the contemporary and historical levels. Although the majority of the historical viewpoints have considerable associations to the existing ones, it has been substantiated that some of these issues are just theories or personal viewpoints with no scientific backgrounds. Aging has become debate, especially with the various scientific advancements that seek to lengthen human existence (Heery & Richardson, 2009). However, this has received mixed responses at cross-cultural levels with some cultures in support and others in opposition. The mixed responses often concern the acceptance of longevity of lives among the society, with contemporary society in support of these advancements (Overall, 2006). Different individuals bear varying perspectives and attitudes concerning their demise thus bringing about death-stage theories and management of death attitudes among these individuals.
People from diverse perspectives possess differing viewpoints concerning aging, with the physician perspective being in favor of death after aging since at this moment, the body is usually worn-out to handle daily struggles. Theological perspective considers death appropriate up to the period one dies a natural death, other than utilizing other methods such as euthanasia (Mitchell, Orr & Salladay, 2004). In modern-day world, death emanating from old age has considerably declined with physical fitness that enables the aging to regain cognitive strength in order to diminish cases of dementia and strengthen cardiovascular for extended existence and normal aging. Activities for instance contemporary dance have considerably influenced lifespan for aging individuals thus assisting in reducing negative death attitudes (Coubard, Duretz, Lefebvre, Lapalus & Ferrufino, 2011). This is because the aging have the assurance of a normal death compared to death that occurs due to aging complications.
Individuals within certain countries have positive attitudes towards death considering that they have completed their lifespan, and are often involved in professional dancing that has considerable influence on their end-of-life-care. The aging in the Japanese culture considers dancing corresponding to aging, since it assists in reducing death anxieties and keep these individuals occupied (Nakajima, 2011). Individuals within the American society possess varying views regarding the right moment for last-stage care although this is highly dependent on the ethnic groups and gender. It is evident that African-Americans utilize life support than Euro-Americans due to varying beliefs regarding death. People from dissimilar cultures have varying cultures, and this has appreciable influence on their death attitudes.
In a study, results revealed that the majority of aging individuals have the valor to speak of their nearing death although others have not yet accepted the fact that their deaths are nearing. Majority of aging individuals often express the willingness to plan certain matters prior to their demise, indicating positive attitudes (Ruth, Van Eechoud, Van Camp, Grypdonck, Deveugele, Verbeke & Van Den Noortgate, 2011). Cultural disparities often offer substantial influence to attitudes concerning death and last-stage care for the aging. The attitudes and preferences that the aging have regarding, last-stage care can be affected by various factors for instance social realities (Sharma, Khosla, Tulsky & Carrese, 2012). Most individuals within the Dutch public offer the positive responses towards euthanasia, considering the realities regarding last-stage care (Rietjens, van der Heide, Onwuteaka-Philipsen, van der Maas & van der Wal, 2006). Therefore, despite the cultural values, individuals may decline the care although this depends on personal attitudes and viewpoints towards death. Certain ethnic groups base their argument regarding the last-stage care on the fact that serious illnesses indicate the last days for the aged (Perkins, Cortez & Hazuda, 2009). Therefore, the care cannot avert death from happening but rather delays death. In view of the varying attitudes towards death among the aging, workers in palliative care ought to acquire skills concerning management the attitudes that dissimilar individuals exhibit in their stay, in nursing homes (Dwyer, Hansebo, Andershed & Ternestedt, 2011).
References
Coubard, O. A., Duretz, S., Lefebvre, V., Lapalus, P., & Ferrufino, L. (2011). Practice of
contemporary dance improves cognitive flexibility in aging. Frontiers In Aging Neuroscience, 3
DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2011.00013
Dwyer, L., Hansebo, G., Andershed, B., & Ternestedt, B. (2011). Nursing home residents views
on dying and death: nursing home employees perspective. International Journal Of Older People Nursing, 6(4), 251.
DOI:10.1111/j.1748-3743.2010.00237.x
Heery, M., & Richardson, G. (2009). Awakening to aging: Glimpsing the gifts of aging.
Colorado Springs, CO: University of the Rockies Press.
Mitchell, C. (Ed.), Orr, R. (Ed.), & Salladay, S. (Ed.). (2004). Aging, death, and the quest for
immortality. W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., Grand Rapids, MI.
Nakajima, N. (2011). De-aging Dancerism? The aging body in contemporary and community
dance. Performance Research, 16(3), 100-104. doi:10.1080/13528165.2011.606033
Overall, C. (2006). Précis of Aging, Death, and Human Longevity: A Philosophical Inquiry.
Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review, 45(3), 537-548.
Perkins, H. S., Cortez, J. D., & Hazuda, H. P. (2009). Cultural Beliefs About a Patient’s Right
Time to Die: An Exploratory Study. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(11), 1240-1247.
DOI: 10.1007/s11606-009-1115-5
Rietjens, J. C., van der Heide, A., Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B. D., van der Maas, P., & van der Wal,
G. (2006). Preferences of the Dutch general public for a good death and associations with attitudes towards end-of-life decision-making. Palliative Medicine, 20(7), 685-692. DOI:10.1177/0269216306070241
Ruth D. P., Van Eechoud, I. J., Van Camp, S., Grypdonck, M., Deveugele, M., Verbeke, N. C. &
Van Den Noortgate, N. J. (2011). Advance Care Planning in terminally ill and frail older persons. Patient Education And Counseling.
DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2011.07.008
Sharma, R., Khosla, N., Tulsky, J., & Carrese, J. (2012). Traditional Expectations Versus US
Realities: First- and Second-Generation Asian Indian Perspectives on Last-stageCare. JGIM: Journal Of General Internal Medicine, 27(3), 311.
DOI: 10.1007/s11606-011-1890-7. Read More
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