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Biology paper : Virology - Analysis of a published research paper - Essay Example

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Calcivirus infect a wide range of animal species, causing a plethora of symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, and urinary tract infections. The first reports of the epidemic caused by this group of virus was from Norwalk, Ohio in 1968; hence the name Norwalk virus…
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Download file to see previous pages On the basis of genomic sequence and organization the human Calciviruses have been placed the general NoVs and Sapovirus in 2002 by International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Prior to this certain other terms such as “Norwalk like viruses” and “Sapporo-like Viruses” were temporarily used terms for these two general respectively. Both of these agents are the causal agents of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis, the former in all age groups, latter more commonly infects children (Schwab & Hurst, 281).
NoVses have now been recognized to be foodborne enteric pathogens of prime significance globally. Two third of the foodborne gastroenteritis incidences in US have been attributed to NoVs with approximately 23million cases reported annually. Commonly reported in children, elderly and the immunocompromised; the infection is widely prevalent in adults visiting or residing in hospitals, developing countries and areas with compact residential establishments. Next to Rotaviruses, NoVs have been identified as the major cause of gastroenteritis in children below five years of age (Koo et al., 1673). Now classified in to five genogroups (GI-GV), the strain identified to be dominant pathogen worldwide is genotype 4 belonging to genogroup II (GII.4), and has been responsible for three global pandemics in last decade (Siebenga et al., 1).
The NoVs have irregular surface characteristics and hence are termed as small-round structured viruses (SRSVs), The Sapovirus are characterized by “Star of David” morphology. These are small icosahedral and unenveloped viruses, 27 to 30 nm in diameter. The genome comprises of 7,000 to 8000 nucleotide long, single stranded, positive sense, 3’ polyadenylated RNA (Schwab & Hurst, 2006). The genome in NoVs has three open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 encoding a non-structural protein further cleaved in to 6 proteins including an RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). ORF2 and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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