Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Statistical models and probabilities - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Newer techniques of construction are being explored to achieve maximal quality with minimal expenses and time of construction. Statistical models and probabilities play an important role in this. Performance of companies on past…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.4% of users find it useful
Statistical models and probabilities
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Statistical models and probabilities"

30 December Statistical Models and Probabilities in Civil Engineering IntroductionCivil engineering is an ever evolving field. Newer techniques of construction are being explored to achieve maximal quality with minimal expenses and time of construction. Statistical models and probabilities play an important role in this. Performance of companies on past projects and lessons learnt from the history provide guidelines for rational decision making in the future projects. Alternative decisions are assigned probabilities accordingly. This paper studies five applications of statistical models and/or probabilities in civil engineering.
1. Scheduling
Scheduling is one of the most important areas of civil engineering. For every project, a schedule is prepared prior to the commencement of the execution of the work. In order for the schedule to be rational, it is imperative that the time taken by similar activities in the past is reviewed. The activities are assigned durations based on that. However, owing to the emphasis on creativity and innovation in the present age, civil engineers are trying new ways and methods of executing the projects, so past record of duration of a certain activity may not always be there. PERT is a technique of assessing the duration of an activity that has never been executed in the past.
2. Research
Like all other areas, civil engineering has also evolved through research. The conventional techniques for the quantitative and/or qualitative analysis of the data make use of statistical models and probabilities. The data is checked for normality through the measures of kurtosis and skewness. If the data passes the normality test, then parametric tests are applied to evaluate the data further. If the data does not pass the normality test, then nonparametric tests are applied for the further evaluation of the data.
3. Risk Management
Risk management is a very important area of civil engineering. Civil engineers identify the risks at every stage of project starting from the project feasibility studies to the completion and handing over stage. Risk is any uncertain even that has a certain probability of occurrence and an impact. Assessment of risk at the right time not only allows the civil engineers to escape the threat posed by that risk, but also change that into an opportunity. Numerous techniques are employed for the risk assessment including the Monte Carlo simulation.
4. Safety Cushion
Height of a bridge in a certain area is selected on the basis of the maximum water level seen in the history of floods and precipitation in that area. Different levels of water are assigned different probabilities depending upon the frequency of their occurrence in the past to select the safety cushion for bridge construction.
5. Cost Estimation
Accurate cost estimation makes a project profitable. There is a very challenging aspect of cost estimation i.e. “to ask how reliably (described in terms of precision and accuracy) those costs have been estimated. If we agree that it is important to estimate costs, then it is clearly equally important to quantify the quality of those cost estimates” (Waterman et al. 4). Simulation modeling provides a mean to achieve that.
Statistical modeling and probability have a range of applications in civil engineering. They are used to make schedules, analyze data in the research, manage risks, selecting the factor of safety and estimating costs.
Works Cited:
Waterman, Richard; Rubin, Donald; Thomas, Neal; and Gelman, Andrew. “Simulation
modeling for cost estimation.” 9 June 1999. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. . Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Statistical models and probabilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Statistical models and probabilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Statistical Models and Probabilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Statistical Models and Probabilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Statistical Models and Probabilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Statistical models and probabilities

Statistical Foundations

...of relationship and associations on simultaneous activity of partners. On the other hand, it would also be much better if the test of difference was employed in the proportion of time spent in different activities. These are all practical tests in inferential statistics that if employed correctly will lead to statistically significant results. On the other hand, there was no clear population parameter considering that it was not clear where the couples were coming from. The study would probably imply that the selected respondents were representative enough of the entire population of married couples in the world. In this case, it was not clear where these couples were coming from. Since...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Statistical Analysis

...? The type of statistical analysis to use in analyzing of data depends on the sample size, the research design used and also the sampling protocol adopted. In analysis of your data from the three researches, both descriptive and inferential statistics will be useful. Descriptive statistics should be used before inferential statistics. The data will be summarized through calculation of measures of central tendency such as mean and median. Range and standard deviation as measures of dispersion/ variation will also be calculated. The data will also be tested for normality and organized into tables or in spreadsheets so as to identify the missing information. Normality...
3 Pages(750 words)Article

Statistical Survey

...=yes and 2=no. The number of hours spent on entertainment assumed integral values ranging from 1-10. The 20 respondents were entered as alphabetic characters from A to T. Response Table Question A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Time spend on entertainment daily? 3 4 7 2 1 5 2 7 3 2 4 5 6 7 2 2 1 4 1 3 Entertainment impact on your life? 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 4 5 2 1 3 4 2 3 4 5 2 5 Preferable mode of entertainment 4 3 4 1 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 4 3 3 2 4 2 4 1 2 Scatter Diagram on the variables Line graph on the variables Bar chart on the variables Works Cited Fowler, F. (2008) Survey research methods. London: Sage Publications. Singer , E. (2011). Survey Methodology. California: John Wiley and Sons. Raghavarao, D. (2009). Sample size methodology:...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Statistical Analysis the criminal institutions. Therefore, it is significant to have records of how other similar cases are handled in order to make conclusive claim that other cases of similar classification are given weight than others (Yacouban, 2000). Notably, Yacouban has applied this statistical comparison of this statistical data to arrive to his conclusion that the international criminal law does not give genocide crimes the weight they deserve. However, other than the use of percentages, Yacouban could have also used probability by computing normal curves to the data he obtained (Faherty, 2007). From the normal curve, it will be clear to note which cases are being preferred over which ones....
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Estimation of UAE population using Bayesian Theorem

...According to the UAE Department of Statistics (, the following figures were obtained from the census that was done in the years between 1975 and 2005. Year Total no. of Expatriates Total no. of Citizens 1975 356,343 201,544 1980 751,555 290,544 1985 983,189 369,114 1995 1,823,711 587,330 2005 3,280,932 825,495 In the table above, these census projections of the population of UAE represents the results obtained by the application of a deterministic model having uncertainty and not on probability. Therefore, the use of the Bayesian model in estimation of this data will combine both the expert-based and data-based approaches into a common stochastic...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Real World Applications of Graphs and Probabilities

...include: so called parabolic antennas; flashlights and reflectors; path of a projectile and solar furnace (Jones 2005 n/p). Some practical applications hyperbolas include: Optics (lenses for telescopes); Astronomy (trajectories of comets); Navigation. 2. Probability applications One area where probabilities are widely used nowadays is earthquake predictions (American Geophysical Union 1995 n/p). The probabilities of certain geological events that can lead to an earthquake are estimated for a given area and used to formulate important predictions. Another field where applications of probabilities are extremely popular is business. Probabilities...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Statistical Problem

...Topic:  Statistical Problem A new product has the following profit projections and associated probabilities. Profit probability $150,000 0.10 $100,000 0.25 $50,000 0.20 0 0.15 -$50,000 0.20 -$100,000 0.10 a. Use the expected value approach to decide whether to market the new product. Expected Value = ($150000 * 0.10) + ($100000 * 0.25) + ($50000 * 0.20) + ($0 * 0.15) + (-$50000 * 0.20) + (-$100000 * 0.10) = $30,000. b. Because of the high dollar values involved, especially the possibility of a $100,000 loss, the marketing vice president has expressed some...
2 Pages(500 words)Speech or Presentation


...EBS101: Statistical Methods Assignment Sheet 2 For set A, a linear regression line of Y against X2 needs to be plotted. The regression line, alongwith the plotted data-points, is as follows- The linear regression line passes through all points, and the value of the correlation coefficient is 1 (that is, perfect correlation). Thus, it is concluded that there is a perfect linear association between the given data sets. For set B, a linear regression line of Y against X needs to be plotted. The regression line, along with the plotted data-points, is as follows- The linear regression line lies close to most points, and (2.4, 2.6) is an anomaly. The value of the correlation coefficient is 0.96, which represents a fairly strong positive... the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Statistical Test

...Statistical Test This section was used to perform preliminary statistical test on the data that were collected from who patronize the school cafeteria on their desire to be served with specific soft drinks and how they would be able to determine that the specific drink they demanded was what they were served with. The data were collected based on the hypothesis that the only way to determine the true brand of a product is through taste and not just by looking at the appearance of the product. The assertion was made against the backdrop that there could be imitation of packaging. This section shall therefore deal with the organization, summarization, display, consideration and above all the evaluation of...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Statistical Models for Forecasting milk production

...Statistical Models for Forecasting milk production Introduction Dairy farming is a major economic activity in many countries contributing much to the national gross domestic product (GDP), income, employment and food to many small-scale farmers. The growth of the dairy sub sector has been largely driven by high domestic demand for milk and dairy products due to a growing population (Omondi and Meinderts, 2010). The country’s dairy herd size is the biggest in sub- Saharan Africa (Mugambi et al, 2010). Although dairy farming sector has a significant contribution to the national economy, household incomes and food security, the industry faces a number of technical, economic and institutional problems in milk production, processing... and...
6 Pages(1500 words)Statistics Project
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Statistical models and probabilities for FREE!

Contact Us