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When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, Chechnya, which was then part Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic in Northern Caucasus, also declared its independence. It was in December 1994 that the Russian Federation launched a military operation against the rebelling state. This ended in 1996 with a humiliating defeat for Russia, and Aslan Maskhadov was elected as Chechen President in 1997. However, despite of peace treaty signed between the two countries, Chechnya relapsed in a turmoil that the fairly elected president was unable to control. This was due to the destruction from the war, failure of Russia to provide promised war reparations, external interference by Islamic radicals, swelling crime and inter-Chechen enmities, which granted excuse to the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin to launch a second war against Chechnya in 1999, in name of combating international terrorism, but with an obvious purpose of forcing Chechnya back into the Federation (Faurby, 1999).
The combat continues as a guerrilla war with ample loss of life and resources on both sides and bleak prospects for hostilities to end soon. International humanitarian laws and human rights laws have been extensively violated on both sides. Reports estimate death toll to be around 80000 since, while the number of displaced to the neighbouring Dagestan is estimated to be 300000 (IRC, c.2006). Russian political leaders were insistent that the warfare was an internal matter for Russia, something that many western leaders were eager to approve, as they did not want the Chechen conflict to hinder their relations (Cornell, 1999). This was not only politically problematic, but also a breach of international laws. However, as the Non Governmental Organization (NGOs) like the Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International increase their activities in human rights field by bringing to light the violations and lobbying
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Ngok Dinka however, are the permanent residents of Abyei. (The Eu and Sudan: On the Brink of Change, 2011, p. 18) This paper attempts to discuss Misseriya tribe’s role in the ongoing Sudan conflict and the reasons behind it. About the Misseriya tribe In order to understand the present day situation of conflict in Sudan, one needs to understand the historical background that has resulted in the present day situation.
These NGOs operate on condition that they do not threaten the power base or engage in any efforts to undercut the state. According to Steinberg, their effectiveness in any region in Myanmar depends on their relationship with the local military command.1 However, more recently; the regulations have relaxed, giving chance for international organizations to expand their roles in the country.
It takes a system approach by interpreting people-organization correlation in terms of the whole person, group or the whole organization as well as the social system. As people interact in an organization, a number of factors come into play. The subject of organization behavior attempts to understand the models of these factors.
Fierce resistance was provided by those living there at that time and continual sub currents of strife has lasted up until the present day. The iron grip of the Soviet Union on the Chechen region helps to squelch many independence movements that would otherwise exhibited themselves.
Sometimes, these organizations are funded by governments for the specific purpose of providing aid and relief to other countries. In many cases, however, the organizations are not sponsored by governments but instead work outside the political realm -- or at least that is how they position themselves.
Fact of the matter is, conflict allows different opinions to come forth, new dimensions to be studied and healthy arguments to occur. But if this conflict is not managed or resolved appropriately, it can actually have very
Throughout the course of the play he must deal with many intrigues and plots, and spend a great deal of time philosophizing about the meaning of life and mortality. Shakespeare’s play captures the human dilemma in all its fullness. It
India, Africa etc) are hot spot for all the hazardous ramifications that entail from religious orthodoxy. Religious beliefs and ideologies have since time immemorial been acting as catalysts in promoting conflicts and history has stood testimony to each of these rage
Second, religion plays a central role in the inner life and social behavior molding of a large number of people, many of whom are currently actively engaged in struggle. Although in the past era of human
Twenty-one years ago, in 1994, Moscow began a military operation which it expected to be a “blitzkrieg” (lightening war) against radical separatist in Chechnya, a small, self-proclaimed independent, oil-rich Russian republic, located in North Caucasus mountain
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