Sky-high concrete buildings with beautiful architectural designs are a concrete proof of the advancement of any nation. Today we see new designs of buildings, bridges, airports and towers. These structures are fundamentally…
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(www.cowi.com, 20-). Since the concrete is fundamentally a man-made material, it is quite possible to control its characteristics and behavior by altering its mix design specifications and adding admixtures to it. Hence, by the careful selection of appropriate materials for preparing the concrete, and close monitoring of its curing once it has been cast, the qualities of concrete can be significantly enhanced to meet the requirements of a particular structure. There are certain design requirements associated with every location and type of a structure. If the structure is made of concrete, the concrete needs to be customized in order to combat the challenges brought to the structure by the weather conditions and temperature of a particular location. This needs an appropriate evaluation of the required properties of concrete by studying the literature for the history of challenges associated with a particular climate. Also, the achievement of required results requires monitoring the whole process right from the start that involves concrete making, casting and finally the curing. Of these, the last two processes are majorly field-specific and require careful supervision from the workers in the construction site. The first part i.e. preparation of the mix design is the most influential process in achieving the desired durability in the concrete. This paper discusses the common methodologies used for the achievement of durability in concrete structures.
Concrete has long been in use as a construction material for a large variety of structures including bridges. A number of long-lived concrete bridges have been constructed in the past. They include the Shakh Isa bin Salam Bridge in Bahrain and the bridge over the Lerez River at Pontevedra in Spain shown in the figure-1 and figure-2 below:
In his report, (Paeglitis, n.d.: 1) has mentioned that more
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Center of discussion in this paper the durability as the ability of concrete to maintain it size, shape and all other properties against adverse environment with respect to time. This essay analyzes factors affected the durability of concrete and how can the material be improved to get the highest efficiency and life.
It is considered to be one of the most ambitious projects undertaken by the Swiss government, since it comprises of the longest running railway line of approximately 57 kms travelling through the Swiss Alps. The tunnel is referred to as "base tunnel" since it crosses the base level of the Alpine mountain range, i.e.
However, when the minerals search methods became complicated, some underground mining methods were developed by the civil engineering experts in order to make use of the discovered deposits. Some of the major categories of underground excavations include
is one of them; it deals mainly with the areas of design, evaluation, and analysis of structures, for resisting the pressure and load exerted over their structures by internal and external forces. In this particular regard, probabilistic methods and techniques are seen as vital
ted with a view to adequately meet the present and expected future requirements of an engineering project with minimum inconvenience that is conventionally caused by other forms of contract. Some of the benefits an ECC offers in comparison to other contracts are simplicity of
The concrete quality requirement according to ASTM C94 specification is either specified according to purchase or as specified (Lamond 2006). In cases where purchaser’s requirements differ, the specification of buyer shall