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mosphere and polar oceans; and changes the force of ocean buoyancy by redistributing fresh water through transportation and subsequent melting of comparatively fresh sea ice.
Thesis Statement: The purpose of this essay is to investigate Antarctica sea ice melt, examine the ocean-atmosphere interaction, and evaluate the environmental and societal impact of rising sea levels and other impacts of the sea ice melt.
Globally, there is a decline of snow and ice over the past several years, particularly since 1980, with an increasing downturn during the last decade. In the South Pole, the east and west Antarctic Ice Sheets are “two unequal parts, with different histories and characteristics” (Mercer 1978: 323), Figure 1 below. Unlike the vast, older and mostly land-based ice sheet in East Antarctica, the Western Antarctic ice sheet is younger, much smaller and marine-based, anchored to a distance of 2,500 meters below sea level. Further, West Antarctica is not a single continent, but is a series of islands covered by ice, touching the ocean floor, and not based on land (NASA 2010).
Two-thirds of the continent is East Antarctica, a high, frozen desert. If all the ice melted, it would increase the global sea level by about 60 meters or 197 feet. The results from a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/ German Aerospace Center’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) study, indicate that since 2006 there has been greater ice loss from interior East Antarctica than earlier believed (Chen et al 2009).
In the Southern Ocean, sea ice forms a fringe around the entire Antarctic continent (Figure 2. below) which is surrounded by the waters of different seas. The Antarctica is subdivided into 5 sectors by researchers, each impacted by diverse geography and weather conditions. This results in greater yearly variations in Antarctic sea ice, as compared to Arctic sea ice (Nasa.Gov 2010).
“Across the Antarctic Peninsula lies one of the
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This level has been fluctuating with time rather than being constant. Perhaps the questions someone would like to ask here is, why is the sea level changing over time? On the other hand, emerging issues arise as to what are the causes of sea level change.
A research was recently conducted to study the effect of gravity changes on the melting rate of ice in Antarctica “as measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite” (Deem). As a result of the study, it was found that every year, 153 km3 of ice is melting away which is quite sufficient to cause an overall increase of 2 inches in the sea level every century.
The dangerous climate change and some of the strategies that can be used to avert the beginning of a dangerous climate change.
Dangerous climatic change has many definitions and there is no specific definition. Dawson and Spannagle (2009) states that dangerous climatic change is the level beyond which climatic change surpasses the acceptable climatic change levels (limits) prescribed in Article 2 of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established in 1992.
One of the most affected areas is the region situated at the northernmost part of the Earth, the Arctic. The climate in the Arctic Circle is transforming quickly, posing a threat to the human and wildlife community that have their homes in this area. It is known that the nature of existing changes in the climate and the prediction of a fast warming Arctic believe a specific importance for Inuit areas as well as the biodiversity.
There are many reasons which are associated with the changes in the climate condition, some of which are associated with the natural internal processes, whereas some of the changes are related to the significant anthropogenic variation in the atmosphere’s composition or the land usage.
BRIC is in popularity nowadays as it shows transformation of economic power from G 7 countries to the developing countries. It is believed that BRIC countries will overtake the developed G 7 countries by 2027. Countries like Turkey, Indonesia, Mexico and Nigeria who are known as the N 11 nations are also the contenders to the BRICs.
First published in 1992, and written with an authoritative tone, the book helped place the environment on the national agenda. The gist was that as environmental issues move front-and-center in the public consciousness, it is time to focus deeply on the fate of planet earth and commit ourselves to its future.
Though sometimes the processes leading to environmental deterioration tend to be of natural origins, many a times the pace of environmental degradation tends to be accelerated by activities of human origins. A plethora of organizations, institutions, NGOs and think tanks do