The term ‘scaffolding’ originated from the works of Wood, Bruner and Ross (1976) entitled “The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving.” Scaffolding is a metaphor that explains the technique a teacher provides assistance to support a student’s learning process. In the…
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It is essentially a link used to build upon a student’s familiarized skill to move on to a much higher mastery of the concept. Mistakes are inevitable, however, with proper advice and prompting from the teacher, the student is able to accomplish the task. Upon mastery of the goal, the teacher gradually removes the scaffold to allow the child to function without assistance. When appropriately implemented, scaffolding will serve as an “enabler” and not a “disabler” (Benson, 1997). According to Vygotsky, “What the child is able to do in collaboration today he will be able to do independently tomorrow.” (Vygotsky, 1987).
Instructional scaffolding may be done in sequential order and in different techniques. It may also be a combination of methods, such as modeling the desired task; breaking the task into simpler, manageable parts; thinking-aloud approach; two-way learning, which encourages teamwork among peers; prompting and questioning; training; or modeling. The teacher has to be aware of maintaining the student’s interest in tracking down the task, at the same time, not putting too much stress on the child. Tasks that are beyond the child’s capacity could increase his frustration level. However, tasks that are too elementary can cause boredom and frustration as well (Lipscomb, Swanson, & West, 2004).
Larkin (2002) recommends that teachers can follow some useful ways of scaffolding: Start by increasing the child’s self-confidence. Have the child perform simple tasks that the parent thinks the child can do independently or with little or no assistance at all. This will develop self-worth. Offer adequate support to enable the child to attain success quickly. This scaffolding process will assist in lessening dissatisfaction levels and ascertain that the child remain motivated to progress onto the next step. This will also help safeguard against students becoming hopeless after a series of failures. Help
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