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Biology does interact with sociological forces that take one to the path of crime. If this concept is perfectly understood, proper steps for effective treatment to offenders can be taken. Genetic variations are conducive to increased violence risk. To be precise men with an extra Y chromosome have a higher propensity for violence—this just one of the findings.
Roger Hopkins Burke, in his book “An introduction to Criminological Theory,” writes, “Biological positivism behaviour can be explained by a genetic susceptibility triggered by environmental factors.”(p.63) He has discussed the issue in detail in a separate chapter on “Biological Positivism.”(p .55-72) He further adds that “Biological positivism suggests a direct link between testosterone and aggression.”(p.67)
Adoption and twin studies also relate to biological influences on maladaptive behaviour. The other influencing factors are alcohol syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder and birth defects. These conditions interact with sociological factors and thus add to the risks of criminal behaviour. The significant factor of criminality is found to be the effects of alcohol. Hormones have a telling effect on the aggression of an individual. Hormonal imbalance results in increased aggression. Childhood trauma and criminal behaviour have close links. With more or less unanimity about the influence of biology on criminal behaviour, it is time to look at the treatment modules of such criminals. A detailed study of biology, genetics and psychology is required to determine treatment of a particular criminal, for both mental health and correctional professionals. “Biological Positivism reduction in offending behaviors is seen as possible by the use of treatment programmes.”(p.71)
The opposing viewpoints whether genetics plays the most important role or environmental factors are
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5). Biocriminology also seeks to explain criminal behavior by reference to a number of biological factors such as brain injuries, prenatal difficulties, neurotransmitters, diets and hormone levels (Anderson, 2006). Historically, sociological explanations of criminal behavior have dominated criminology and crime studies.
To substantiate the essence of the theme, two poems are taken as samples: One by Langston Hughes titled “Mother to Son” and the other by Claude McKay titled “America” Conformity is associated with the generations that are frustrated with the American culture, tradition and even living style.
As an illustration, heroin abuse does lead to financial criminal behaviours; that is, the abusers commit crimes with the specific objective being the financing and re-financing of their heroin habits. A more general causal relationship, that substance abuse per se causes crimes in all spheres, is simply not supported by the empirical data.
The distinction between psychopathy and ASPD is of considerable significance to the mental health and criminal justice systems.
In the UK, 'psychopatic disorder' is a legal term used in the Mental Health Act 1983, and is 'a persistent disorder or disability of mind which results in abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct'.
Responsibility for a crime committed does not reside with the offender, but instead is a result of a social problem. For example, if a teenage male participates in a holdup of a convenience store, proponents of the social problem approach will point to poor parenting, poor education, lack of adult role models, or other similar disadvantages facing the young man to explain his actions in committing the robbery.
So obviously, reasons for the criminal nature have become main research area of criminology to prevent crimes in the society. To understand the apparent causes of crime, several theories and approaches have been
Despite the advices of her teacher, she keeps on grabbing what she wants and screams and hits when something is taken away. When consulting a psychoanalystic theorist, a behaviorist, and a cognitive theorist about Dina’s
ory is based on the transaction cost, which argues that the transactions are made within an organization in case the transaction costs are higher than the internal costs in the free market (Cantwell and Narula 2003, p.41). This transaction process is termed as internalization