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In addition, the cost of health care is assuming a larger role in clinical policymaking. Even wealthy nations, squeezed between the Scylla of exponential technology growth and the Charybdis of shrinking health care resources must make hard choices about which technologies they can afford (Gold et al, 2007).
Economic evaluation is a methodology that is being used increasingly to help clinicians and policymakers think about these hard choices. Economic evaluation is the “comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both their costs and consequences” (Drummond et al, 2005). When measuring the effects of health programs on both resource consumption and health, economic evaluation allows us to see how much health care “bang” we are getting for our “buck.”
Over the last 20 years the number of published CEAs has grown exponentially, particularly in clinical journals. Insurers, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and regional and national governments are showing an increasing interest in the results of CEAs, particularly in the area of pharmaceuticals. Economic evaluation has matured as a scientific discipline. In this brief review we discuss some of the characteristics and uses of economic evaluation and provide direction for those who wish to learn more.
Full economic evaluations are always comparative. No treatment is ever “cost-effective” in isolation. It is always more or less so in relation to some other treatment, even if the alternate treatment is to “do nothing.” Even doing nothing has health and cost consequences that must be considered (Ketley, 2009).
What programs should be compared? In their work on the subject, Zweifel and his colleagues (2009) states that economic evaluation ideally includes all potential and mutually exclusive programs for a defined population. Thus an ideal economic evaluation of colorectal cancer
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Information is a main asset for any institution and measures to ensure security of assets is of key importance. A well implemented information security governance framework should direct and control security policies that are implemented at all levels of decision making Table of Contents 1.
It promotes essential objectives of the state such as developing individuals who are well educated and producing a highly skilled work force (teachers and administrators). The program can be well understood. The process of application and the structure of award are clearly defined.
Alarming statistics show that out of 1 out of 5 deaths reported are as a result of smoking related complications. This epidemic is also linked to the many cases of cancer, majorly lung cancer which is associated with respiratory complications contributed to by smoking.
Compared to other organizations, the engineering organizations take part in operations that are much riskier, putting them at the risk of accidents, diseases and even death. The industrial management team has a vital role to ensure that the health and safety of their employees are maintained at an optimal level.
If the political and bureaucratic leadership in a system is exposed to random accountability checks, their will be left little scope for the mismanagement and wastage of state funds allocated for health and social programs. "Accountability has been defined as an obligation to answer for a responsibility that has been conferred (Thompson, 2003, p.1)." Thus a mandatory requirement for accountability in a system puts the managers and officials in charge of state funded health and social programs to be answerable for the actions and decisions taken by them while dispensing their duties and responsibilities in the realm of public service.
for these schools to get funds from the merit award program, their districts are required to develop a pay plan based on performance which meets the requirements of the program. Merit award program provides a supplement payment not lower than five percent (5%) and not exceeding
The form of obtaining data from them is through the various support groups. Interactive meetings with some of the individuals will also be important. Their role will be to provide useful information to be used
ny is a business empire that has no equal; that their products are utilized in almost every computer on earth or that is has still not arrived at the height of its power, as well as influence, making them seem like a monopoly in this business (Christensen & Raynor, 2013). Even
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