Download file to see previous pages...
The infection cycle involves the disease causing agent managing entry into the host either through adhesion or penetration, assimilation of nutrients to generate more copies of itself and subvert the defence systems of the host and eventually exit from the host to start another cycle in a different target. Numerous in vitro and in vivo infection models have been developed over the years to identify virulence factors and understand its regulation. The fact that some of the host-pathogen interactions have been evolutionarily conserved has led to the establishment of model systems to understand pathogenesis from both the hosts’ and pathogens’ side. Much remains to be understood about the host-pathogen interaction at the molecular level and model systems that are most informative of this could be systems in which the pathogen and host are both amenable to genetic analysis (Pradel and Ewbank, 2004).
A number of non-vertebrate model organisms have been developed in order to study host-pathogen interactions which facilitates not only a better understanding of virulence mechanisms but also permit direct genetic techniques to study host defences while reducing cost and ethical constraints associated with mammalian model systems. Non-vertebrate models have also been more popular in bacterial pathogenesis studies because of the following factors:
To understand the complexity of virulence-defence interactions a number of pathogen-host systems are required. Simple easy to handle organism such as D. discoideum, C. elegans, D. melanogaster and G. mellonella helps in identifying virulence factors and understanding their functions. Comparative studies in host models also contribute to the identification of novel elements involved in host susceptibility and resistance. Some of these elements conserved over species may also contribute to our understanding of pathogenesis in vertebrates. The genetic tractability of the simple host models will also make possible refined
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Patients of diabetes and people having weak immune systems are most likely to get chronic bacterial infections. In the case of presence of two organisms in the body of the host, the organisms fight with each other rather than fighting with the body of the host, thus causing each colony to be balanced.
The study assumes significance because of the fact that dyslipidaemia is common in patients with renal disease and is a recognized risk factor for in the general population and occur in a majority of patients with renal disease (Weiner, 2004). The reported prevalence of dyslipidemia in renal transplant patients ranges from 16-72%.
By verbal reports, it can be very difficult to obtain an accurate nutritional assessment. Although, the most common method is a 24-hour recall, where the patient is usually interviewed by the nutritional therapist and is asked to give the types, amounts, and preparation used for all food eaten in the 24 hours.
lby and Haldeman, it was found that theater, peer-led theater to be exact, could be used successfully to educate young Latino children regarding good nutrition and healthy diets. This clearly illustrates the legitimacy of using art as a medium for education. Moreover, as there
What are some of the treatments for these disorders?
According to Michael & Allan, (2009), psychological disorders form some kind of psychological symptoms that indicates that one is suffering from some distressing problems. The affected persons have some
Intel Corporation, a semiconductor chip maker, operates in a monopolistic competition market model. The company is a U.S-based multinational company, whose operations are technologically driven.
The number of players in the semiconductor
The client is an individual with their own purposes and directions. It focuses on growth or a health oriented approach. The therapist is striving to enter into and understand the client’s world without upsetting, changing or disrupting that world. The core issue is
It is always every ones desire to be appreciated and to find pride in the things they do but all the same life may not always offer everyone the best choice. People’s emotions are mainly the product of our beliefs,
Antiretroviral drug resistance in adult infected with HIV-1 is a worrying phenomenon. Testing the extent of resistance can lead to the development of a quality drug that can combat the virus from spreading. This would reduce the number of deaths due to the infection. Experimental results could lead to a better understanding of how the virus develops.
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Assignment on topic How useful are invertebrate infection models for studying bacterial pathogenisis and therapy for FREE!