Download file to see previous pages...
Hence, heroin production and trafficking from Afghanistan is a major threat to humanity. Thesis statement: An investigation to unearth the role of Afghanistan in Heroin trafficking to global market and possible preventive measures.
As pointed out, heroin production and trafficking is based on poppy cultivation and opium based drugs. The opium markets distribute raw opium to traders and they refine it with the help of precursor chemicals and produce heroin. But these refinement workshops are located near to the border areas and poppy farms. So the government control over these areas become limited and it helps the heroin traffickers to form a parallel governing system. The refinement workshops make use of typical equipments for the basic processing of opium. But further refining needs technical expertise and it is provided by some foreign chemists. Morphine base, crude form of heroine is produced from opium. But it is difficult to produce heroin from morphine base. For instance, the heroin traffickers make use of mobile labs to overcome this trouble. Innovative methods like usage of large trucks for the production of heroin help the traders to keep themselves away from the authorities.
Some Afghani districts like Nangarhar’s Achin are notorious for heroin labs and large scale heroin production. Frank Clements in the work ‘Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia’ opines that large scale refinement of heroin in Afghanistan helps to smuggle the same through borders without further difficulties (Clements 78). When the refinement process becomes more difficult, cost and demand of pure heroin in the global market shows increasing tendency.
Earlier, refining opium was done in Pakistan or Turkey. But in 1995, the Pakistani authorities destroyed illegal workshops and it helped to hinder heroin trafficking from Afghanistan to Pakistan. But the heroin traders discovered an innovative way to handle this situation. They
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
It entails, among others, the violent acts that are perpetrated for ideological, religious and political goals. As such, terrorism is a difficult challenge to address by national and international law enforcement agencies (Peters, 2009). Terrorist organizations have to raise money in order to finance their activities and achieve their goals.
this Central Asian country is presently under a joint NATO occupation following the US-led overthrow of the fanatical Taliban regime in the wake of the attacks of September 11th. The American-Afghani relationship is complex and the complexity has been a feature of this
es it consume a lot of money, but also exposes the society to a lot of health risks, thus increasing financial pressure upon the government who is responsible to ensure the provision of adequate healthcare facilities. In this way, drug trafficking plays a dual role in weakening
rgest country in the world, spanning a total of 652,230 square kilometers, with its borders touching China, Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (CIA 1991). Afghanistan’s harsh but breath taking landscape is dotted with rugged mountain ranges that dominate
The war in Afghanistan has consumed many American lives as well as the lives of local people since its inception back in 2001.
An important dimension to this war in Afghanistan is the drug lord mafia of the country and the
The drug has adverse effects on the brain most of which are irreversible. Despite the drug having negative effects, it is also be used for medical purposes.
The rate of drug abuse in the USA has increased
The use of fraudulent documents such as fake Identity cards, travel documents and passports, fraudulent laundering of money, and employing the services of corrupt government officials are some of the facilitations. Terrorists and traffickers have similar
However, it is important to say that any social environment is able to function right only when life in it is guided by different rule and regulations. They ensure that none of the people would perform actions that may eventually damage the foundations of