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ic nervous system and adrenal glands, including increased heart rate (tachycardia), increased breathing rate (tachypnea), tenseness or trembling of muscles, profuse sweating, and dryness of the mouth. Circulation from the rest of the body is directed to the areas where energy is needed most, either to protect oneself or to escape danger, also known as the "fight or flight" response. The sudden diversion of excess blood from the brain may also cause fainting, which may actually serve as an adaptive function in animals to protect them from predators.
Children experience fears with greater intensity than older people. Middle aged children as a group experience less fears than their older or younger siblings. There is a disagreement between researchers upon the degree to which fear is innate or a learned response. Pavlov’s research with conditioning led to various experiments through which animals were conditioned to fear certain stimuli which were previously neutral. However certain fears such as fear of pain, injury or loud noises are innate and appear to be universal.
Fear generally starts appearing in infants at 7 months of age. In newborns, fear is primarily reflexive. By instinct, they become afraid if there is sudden loss of support, extreme or unexpected sensory stimulus particularly with loud sounds. At about 6 to 9 months of age infants develop fear of masks, heights and strangers. Anxiety of separation typically appears at about 6 to 10 months of age and peaks between 18 and 24 months. Fear of being separated from the primary guardian is a universal reaction. The ability to understand constancy is not present in the young infant and it might believe that its mother might be gone forever if she is not currently present there. The peak that is observed at 18 to 24 months is probably because this is the age when most children enter day care or preschool.
At two years of age a child becomes more organized and develops a better sense of security. A two year
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(“Fears Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
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(Fears Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“Fears Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1564087-fears.
Some people even have phobias that last their entire life. Furthermore, having a fear of taking a test or speaking in public does not result in some of the physical and psychological ramifications that a phobia is capable of causing. A phobia is something that can greatly alter or disrupt the life of an individual; phobias can cause a person to be unable to function normally in the workplace or other social settings.
The concept evolved from the works of a Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate to a stimulus, such as the sound of a bell. The procedures involve exposing an individual to two different stimuli at the same time. The stimuli are unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus.
This fear mostly occurs when a person is traumatized to some extent of life of which the trauma experience is from fire or even flames. For example, during childhood this person was engaged to a certain occurrence about fire of which it exposed him or her to pyrophobia (Pitchford, 2011).
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John Gardner had charges of assaulting and molesting a minor in 2000, after five years in prison he got released, and two years later, he would be discovered living some few miles from a centre of day care. Rather than jailing him back for
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