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Many of the investment management theories were found worthless in an investment climate which is characterized by innumerable number of investment opportunities with differing categories of risk. This has led the investors to think about collective investment to set off the risk from one investment with the return from another investment. This was formally called portfolio and many theories have been developed thereafter to facilitate portfolio management. This paper discusses some of the important concepts of modern portfolio management. The paper takes a descriptive approach where all the concepts are described in such a way how they are useful for investors.
Investors always seek for an optimal investment portfolio where the returns are more and risk is less. This can be met through Portfolio Theory. The Theory helps in developing an optimal portfolio that will enable an investor to optimize market risk and generate more return from the business. Thus Portfolio theory is an approach to manage risk and return. The Theory has got much relevance in of financial management literature as many investors found them effective means of increasing the return at a given risk level. The theory is basically applied to the stock market and is based on the idea that there are basically two kinds of risk: (a) diversifiable or relevant risk (risk associated with events occurring in individual companies such as strikes, new marketing programs, lawsuits and new inventions (b) non diversifiable or market risk (risk associated with factors that affect all companies such as inflation, war and recession (Elton, 1999). The careful construction of portfolio of securities helps investors to reduce the diversifiable risk to zero and optimize the market risk. However the market risk cannot be eliminated as it is uncontrollable one. And to the investment managers it helps to meet the
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However, when the question is asked if international law is really “Law,” the intention is not to essentially inquire as to whether or not international law is actually natural law, for this cannot be proven even by adherents of the natural law tradition.
States build fortresses to defend themselves from marching legions. With the same motive of self-preservation, states also forge alliances to help them ward off potential invaders. Fast forward to the 21st century, sovereign states are no longer threatened by wars waged by an invading enemy.
Another reason is that the UN operates with a system of treaties, and these treaties often have overlapping and contradictory provisions, which are difficult to reconcile. The courts which are taxed to reconcile these contradictory and overlapping provision are themselves contradictory and overlapping, and each of these courts have limited jurisdiction.
.......................... 2 Overview of the sources of international law..................................................... 2 Treaties............................................................................................................... 3 International Customs.
Increasingly, rapid technology lifecycles has increased competition among countries as to who can produce the best in the market hence the need to employ competitive marketing and business strategies (Dole, 2003)
This paper will deal with Dell Inc. as a computer hardware and software company.
The first thing is that not majority of the universities offer this program because the program requires internships and placements in departments which are mostly governmental or for organizations which are truly large and operates globally. So it is difficult for most of the universities to provide full exposure to their students of the real life working in the field of international affairs.
Third, the employers of a conglomerate are not typically the managers. The overall job of the financial manager can be divided into the venture, or capital budgeting decision and the financing decision. In
India has been portrayed as the unity in diversity, and that ideology is reflected clearly on the Indian film industry. There are many numbers regional languages in India and at the same time there are many regional films are getting released in India.
For instance, it is common for companies to source raw materials in Africa, gather products in India and store and distribute to the US. The process involved in moving goods to their destination is called
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