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There can be some environmental causes too such as “women who received radiation therapy to the upper body for treatment of Hodgkin disease before 30 years of age have a significantly higher rate of breast cancer than the general population” (WebMD Inc., 2009).
1) Genes can be defective in some individuals. Genes which are more prone to cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2. Naturally, these are “tumor suppressor genes” (American Cancer Society, 2009) because they produce proteins that hinder the growth of cancerous cells, but when they get mutated, they cause the development of cancer. Thus, if a person inherits defective genes from his parents, he is more likely to develop breast cancer. Also, if one has a relative who has cancer of any sort, even then he may be prone to this disease.
2) Growing age is also a risk factor. Older individuals are more prone to this disease. 3) Gender also matters, that is, women have more risk of developing this disease than men. Plant (2000) states that one out of nine women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime.
3) Corpulence or obesity also plays a role in the development of breast cancer as fat women tend to produce larger quantity of estrogen hormone which, as stated above, increases the risk of breast cancer.
6) Birth control pills are also found to increase the risk of breast cancer to some extent. 7) Lack of exercise is also a big risk factor as properly scheduled exercise hinders the growth of breast cancer. According to Slowick (2009), “a womans exposure to estrogen is lowered by exercise, which affects the menstrual cycle and can inhibit ovulation”. The more a woman ovulates, the greater is the risk of breast cancer.
Breast cancer does not have very specific causes but one must keep in mind the risk factors involved and must try to limit those which are under his control. Early stage breast cancer has no significant symptoms so it is very important to
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Breast cancer is the more common type cancer among American women and is one of the leading causes of death in the United States (Weaver, 2007). For instance, in 2007, experts estimated placed at 240,000 people, including men, who will be victims of cancer in the United States for that year (Weaver, 2007).
According to the research findings it can therefore be said that breast cancer is an important malignancy in women because of its high incidence. The signs and symptoms of breast cancer are important to be understood by women as the early detection of the tumor plays an important role in better prognosis.
Breast cancer has got many risk factors. The majority cases of breast cancer are reported among women who are above 50 years. The cancer is known to occur is families with a history of the cancer (National Cancer Institute, 4). It is also common in the late cases of the first pregnancy and among kinsfolk with a history of benign breasts ailments and diseases.
There are many types of cancer. As the name indicates, cancer cells are produced in the breast part with the possibility of affecting other organs and tissues of the human body. Cells are the basic elements that create tissues in the body. Research (McPhee & Tierney, 2007, pp.
The RNA polymerase needs other proteins in order to carry out the transcription process. Ensuring that transcription is adequately and properly carried out helps ensure cell growth and metabolism. Recently emerging studies point out that some adult cells may be affected and transformed into stem cells when a small number of transcription factors are added in (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006).
What is Breast Cancer?
90% of breast cancer occurrences are due to genetic abnormalities that happen as a result of aging process and life in general. It is important to note that cancer has the potential to break through the normal breast tissue barriers and spread into other parts of the body.
Ethnic specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 are found in Ashkenazi (European) Jewish origin and in some families in Iceland, the Netherlands, and the Balkans. American Cancer Society has reported that breast cancer related deaths are
On the positive side, advanced treatment and drugs available for breast cancer, are saving many women’s lives and they are able to resume their normal life with minor ‘alterations’. Also, early detection can cure the woman in an effective
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