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Policy -fixing health care (Zoonotic disease) - Research Paper Example

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The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) make up the most common infections affecting the people in Latin America and the Caribbean (Hotez et al, 2008). Figure 1 shows the extent of infection of NTDs including the helminths in comparison to some of the other communicable…
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Policy paper-fixing health care (Zoonotic disease)
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Policy Paper-fixing Health Care (Zoonotic disease) Zoonoses Burden in the Caribbean The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) make up the most common infections affecting the people in Latin America and the Caribbean (Hotez et al, 2008). Figure 1 shows the extent of infection of NTDs including the helminths in comparison to some of the other communicable diseases
Figure – 1
Extent of NTDs in Comparison with Other Communicable Diseases
(Source PAHO, 2009)
In the communities in the Caribbean infection of Tricuris tricuria is found to be as prevalent as Ascaris lumbricoides and pose a severe health issue through significant morbidity (Bundy, 1986). The most frequently observed parasite in the Caribbean islands- is the Ancylostoma species (58%), followed by Dipylidium caninum (6%), Toxocara canis (4%), Trichuris vulpis (4%), and S. stercoralis (3%). The overall prevalence of D. immitis is 25.3% (from www.EMERGING%20PARASITES%20OF%20PUBLIC%20HEALTH%20SIGNIFICANCE ).
Table -1 shows the prevalence of round worm infestation in the Caribbean and Table 2 shows the prevalence of whip worm with the sample sizes given in parenthesis.
Table – 1
Prevalence of round worm
Country
0-5 Years M & F
6-14 Years M & F
15+ Years M
15-44 Years F
45+ Years F
Jamaica
6.9 (296)
-
-
-
-
St. Lucia
57.4 (247)
67.3 (603)
-
-
-
Trinidad & Tobago
-
6.5 (131)
-
-
-
Guyana
22.5 (111)
20.2 (89)
5.6 (36)
15.3 (85)
15.4 (13).
(Johnson, Latham & Roe, 1982).
Table – 2
Prevalence of Hookworm
Country
0-5 Years M & F
6-14 Years M & F
15+ Years M
15-44 Years F
45+ Years F
Jamaica
6.6 (296)
-
30.7 (251)
-
12.3 (260)
St. Lucia
16.5 (247)
51.2 (603)
-
-
-
Trinidad & Tobago
-
9.3 (131)
8.9 (56)
11.8 (36)
-
Guyana
0.9 (111)
0.0 (89)
0.0 (36)
0.0 (85)
0.0 (13).
(Johnson, Latham & Roe, 1982).
Evaluation of the parasite burden of Tricuris tricuria in a St. Lucian community showed most of the community having a low burden of the parasite, while few members of the community had a heavy burden. 84% of t those harbouring the parasite were found to be children in the age group two to fifteen years. Children of the same age group constituted 87% of those individuals having hundred or more worms (Bundy et al, 1987). Zoonotic burden in Jamaica is to a significant extent due to the close interaction of humans and pets like dogs. 73% of the households in Jamaica maintain pet dogs. Assessment through faecal examination showed that 58% of the animals were infected with one or more of the eight helminths distributed as Uncinaria stenocecephala 26%, Ancylostoma sp. 23%, Trichuris vulpis 9%, Toxocara canis 8%, Spirocera lupi 6%, Strongyloides sp. 6%, Appphallus sp. 4%, and taenids 1% (Robinson, Thompson & Lindo, 1989).
The results of the study into the Annotto Bay community in the Parish of St. Mary, Jamaica showed that 64.7% of the stool specimens of the community had one or more of the helminth species and that there was a marked age dependence demonstrated with the helminth infestation occurring most commonly in the pre-school children (Win, 1996).
Screw worms or Cochliomyia hominivorax infestation in Jamaica in 1998 was 25,000. Since then an eradication program has led to its diminishing infestation in Jamaica. Between 2004 and 2007 the annual average infestation of screw worms had dipped to 2,000 and in 2008 the infestation had dropped to 452, which included twenty infestations in humans (Reid, 2008).
In 2007 UNAIDS sponsored a study into the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children infected with HIV/Aids. The results of the study showed that the prevalence of Giardia lamblia was 12.2%, that of Entamoeba hartmanni 2.4%, Endolimax nana 4.9 % and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.4% (Barrett et al, 2008).
`

 
Literary References
Barrett, D. M., Steel-Duncan, J., Christie, C. D. C., Eldemire-Shearer, D. & Lindo, J. F. (2008). Absence of opportunistic parasitic infestations in children living with HIV/AIDS in childrens homes in Jamaica: pilot investigations. West Indian Medical Journal, 57(3), Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Web Site: http://caribbean.scielo.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0043-31442008000300015&lng=en&nrm=
Bundy, D. A. 1(986). Epidemiological aspects of Trichuris and trichuriasis in Caribbean communities. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 80(5), 706-718.
Bundy, D. A., Cooper, E. S., Thompson, D. E., Anderson, R. M. & Didier, J. M. (1989). Age-related Prevalence and intensity of Tricuris tricuria in a St. Lucian Community. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 81(1), 85-94.
Hotez, P. J., Bottazzi, M. E., Franco-Paredes, C. Ault, S. K. & Periago, M. R. (2008). The Neglected Tropical Diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: A Review of Disease Burden and Distribution and a Roadmap for Control and Elimination. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from, PLoS Web Site: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2553488/
Johnson, A. A., Latham, M. C. & Roe, D. A. (1982). Nutritional Anemias in the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Review of the Literature. AJPH, 72(3), 285-289.
PAHO. (2009). The Burden of Neglected Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean Compared with Some Other Communicable Diseases. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Web Site: http://www.paho.org/English/AD/DPC/CD/psit-nd-graph.htm
Reid, T. (2008). Worms tighten screws - Babies among maggot infestation victims 10 years after eradication project, vermin survive. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from, Jamaica Cleaner Web Site: http://www.jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20080418/news/news3.html
Robinson, R. D., Thompson, D. L. & Lindo, J. F. (1989). A survey of intestinal helminths of well-cared-for dogs in Jamaica, and their potential public health significance. Journal of Helminthology, 63, 32-38.
Win, S. S. (1996). Intestinal worm infestation of children under 9 years of age in Annotto Bay, St. Mary. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from Web Site: http://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&src=google&base=MedCarib&lang=p&nextAction=lnk&exprSearch=1976&indexSearch=ID
www.EMERGING%20PARASITES%20OF%20PUBLIC%20HEALTH%20SIGNIFICANCE Read More
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