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According to social-learning theories, people learn by merely observing what others do and what happens to them. Cognitive theories emphasize cognitive processes such as thinking and judging and are guided by cognitions (e.g. expectations) about the world, especially those about other people. Trait theorists assume that traits are relatively stable over time, differ among individuals and they influence behavior. Hence personality theories focus on different key elements to explain the relationship between personality and other psychological constructs.
A2.Sigmund Freud spent most of his life developing the theory of personality to describe how the human psyche or mind operates. According to his theory, human psyche is composed of parts that are conscious, preconscious, and unconscious: the conscious part of the psyche consists of all the thoughts that currently occupy our mind, the preconscious part of the psyche consists of the thoughts, memories, and knowledge that we are not currently aware of, but that are available to us as memories and knowledge and the unconscious part of our psyche holds thoughts, memories, impulses that we are not aware of. Freud also posited that the psyche is composed of three structures: the id, ego, and superego which interact and wrestle with each other for dominance and results in the whole of each human’s behavior. The id is driven by primitive animal instincts and seeks to maximize pleasure and minimize any discomfort. However, it does not care about what is practical, safe, or moral. The ego refers to one’s sense of self and functions according to the reality principle because its job is to gratify the id in accord with reality. The superego operates according to the morality principle in that it seeks what is good and moral above all else. The ego aims to gratify the id’s primitive needs within the constraints of reality and within the moral
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