E. Friedman provides a scholarly look at the Five Books of Moses. Although the Torah is usually seen as religious in nature, the scholarly article is not at all religious. While this kind of writing is certainly no substitute for a…
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of the Torah, along with some other perspectives, and allows us to take a step back from blind faith in order to better understand how, most likely, the Torah came to be.
Source criticism assumes human, rather than divine, authorship of the text, and further uses modern kinds of literary research to establish that the Five Books of Moses were cobbled together from four major bodies of knowledge or traditions. Friedman does not spend much time dealing with the obviously oral origins of the words, but instead bases his reading on textual elements, from which scholars are able to tease apart the contributions of four separate writers and to hypothesize the literary steps taken by the editor who combined all four into a single, coherent, and cohesive document. Friedman reports on ten disparate categories through which we can discern the four authors: doublets, terminology, contradictions, consistent characteristics, narrative flow, historical referents, linguistic classifications, relationships among sources, references in other parts of the bible, and editorial marks.
Doublets refer to “cases of two variations of the same story in the Pentateuch” (Friedman, 1992, p. 609). This essay refers to twenty-seven different places in the Torah where the same story has been told in slightly different ways, for instance, the order of creation in Genesis, which is presented differently in 1:1-2:3 than in 2:4-25. There are even examples of triplets, three versions of the same story. The second category, terminology, refers to different names being used, especially for God. This is most important because, “these differences of terminology fall consistently into one or another group of doublets” (Friedman, 1992, p. 610). One set will always use the term “God” while the other will always use “Yahweh,” suggesting two different authors with two different ways of talking about the deity. For scholars, this is the key to determining the number of different authors,
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Torah has six major parts which begin with the earliest history, creation of universe and human beings, and conclude at Moses' farewell (Friedman, Bible Dictionary). From the outset the relationship between the creator and its beings is enveloped in a shroud of seeking divine favors and avoiding God's wrath when transgressing the path of good into the evil periphery and beyond.
This is to say that God chose his reflectors in human nations to be able to deliver his image of godliness as best and to the topes accordance of beauty in a god as a god could exhibit in his people, surroundings, majesty, artistic creation of things and subjects of his ruling domain.
Divine revelations emerge from the bliss-level, the conflict-free, duality-free zone.
Majority of the Christians have been taught from childhood that Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,
The process of divorce came into being to allow for a legal and formal separation. Within the Christian religion there has been varying views and beliefs of this process. The issue of divorce under Mosaic Law as outlined in the Pentateuch was one of the
This commentary goes in tandem with the Hebrew narrative art. The plot and characters are depicted in that style. Its inter-textuality raises many interpretative possibilities. Therefore, simple and independent episodes turn as complex but interconnected. The reader
A code of laws, which is usually assigned to Torah texts, in reality, is a set of moral principles of behavior for Judaists.
If to discuss a manner of narration of other Judaic books, we would see that the Mosaic books are the sources for
For instance, for Muslims, Holy Quran and for Hindus Bhagavad –Gita are the Holy Scriptures revered and followed among the believers. In case of Judaism, Torah is the holy book which is referred to by the
China’s association with Nigeria have developed from the sporadic and restricted contact which marked the instantaneous era of after-independence to an ever more expansive and convoluted engagement. Similar to other countries of Africa of the 1960s as well as the 1970s, Nigeria viewed China as an independent developing nation.
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