StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Tuberculosis - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
It mostly affects the lungs, but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the nervous system or the circulatory system. Over one third of the world’s population now had this virus, and…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.1% of users find it useful
Tuberculosis
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Tuberculosis"

Tuberculosis Intro: Tuberculosis is a deadly disease cause by an invading bacterium inside the body. It mostly affects the lungs, but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the nervous system or the circulatory system. Over one third of the world’s population now had this virus, and the rate of new infections of the bacterium are reaching about one every second.
Out of the people infected with the disease, most of them will have it contracted in their lungs. Symptoms of the disease include a cough lasting for more than three weeks, chest pain, and even coughing up blood.
The disease is spread by people who have the disease when they either cough, sneeze, spit, or talk. One sneeze can send about 40,000 droplets full of the infection. A person with the disease can spread it to 10-15 people a year with prolonged contact.
Tuberculosis is often a difficult disease to diagnose, because of how hard it is to grow the bacterium inside laboratory conditions. Various tests must be done, including x-rays, smears, cultures, skin tests, as well as a look at past medical history. New ways of faster more accurate types of detection of the disease are underway, hoping these quicker ways of detection can help with controlling the disease.
Treatment for the drug is given in the form of antibiotics. Long terms of these antibiotics are needed in order to clear the entire bacterium from the body, and is often treated with a combination of antibiotics. However, there are risks involved when combining the different antibiotics, even thought it is helpful incase the bacterium becomes drug resistant to one of the antibiotics.
Conclusion:
Even with the fast spreading nature of the disease, prevention is still underway. In 1993, the World Health Organization declared that the fast spreading Tuberculosis disease was in fact a global health emergency, and a global plan has gone into effect which aims to save lives from Tuberculosis between 2006-20015.
The prevention of Tuberculosis is split into two waves of attack. In the first wave, people who are known to have Tuberculosis are treated, and all people with immerse contact with that person are also found and treated.
The second step in prevention the spread of the deadly disease is vaccines. Vaccines are given to children; however an effective vaccine is not available for adults. In some countries, the vaccines is being required to be given to all children under the age of three to try to combat the rapidly spreading bacterium.
Several new methods of preventing the disease are also underway. One such vaccine, when combined with chemotherapy, can quicken the decline and removal of the disease from the body. Other various forms of different vaccines are also being researched, in the hopes that a stronger one can be found.
A disease with such a strong showing world wide, with 2 billion people world wide(2 million die from the disease every year), is a serious concern for everybody. Hopefully, with the prevention programs, as well as research on vaccines, a good treatment and vaccine program can be found, in order to help contain and stop the spread of this deadly disease.



References
Tuberculosis October 29 2006 no author
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Tuberculosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Tuberculosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1538085-tuberculosis
(Tuberculosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Tuberculosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1538085-tuberculosis.
“Tuberculosis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1538085-tuberculosis.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

...). IFN-? is produced in response to IL-12 secretion, which is initiated by toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 activation (Wang et al. 902).On the other hand, Il-10 and TGF-? antagonizes the action of TNF-? and IFN-? respectively, reducing the anti-mycobacterial immune response and allowing the growth of the pathogen within the host cells. In particular, IL-10 induces the macrophages to release soluble TNF-? receptor type 2 (TNFR2), which couples with the cytokine to form an inactive TNF-?-TNFR2 complex. In this regard, a balance among these four is necessary in the optimal immune response against M. tuberculosis (Mustafa et al. 450). M. tuberculosis is communicated through aerosols and inhaled bacilli. Upon phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages...
35 Pages(8750 words)Dissertation

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

... individual, the droplet traverses through the nasal passages, towards the lung alveoli where they are engulfed by macrophages and distributed throughout the body. The bacteria may remain dormant but still viable for many years (this is called latent TB infection). People with latent TB infection are not infectious, but have 10% chance of developing an active TB infection later in life. Persons who have poor immune systems or who have other sicknesses have higher risks of being actively infected; for example, persons with HIV have the highest risk of getting TB (Gandhi, et al., 2006). Co-infection with other diseases increases the difficulty in treating the tuberculosis. A TB patient that has high chances of enhancing transmission has...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Tuberculosis TB

... and damage lungs. Elkington et al., (2011) believe that production of enzyme called MMP-1 is considerably increased in the presence of M Tuberculosis. This is path breaking discovery that can significantly influence the treatment. The inactive M Tuberculosis is fought off by the body immune system and therefore cannot spread the disease. Even after years, it can only become active if the body immunity system is weakened (Davies, 1994). 3. Types of tuberculosis Though bacteria can attack any part of body like lungs, lymphatic system, central nervous system, bones, joints, genitourinary system etc., the hematogenous pulmonary tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis are more widespread. Of the two, pulmonary tuberculosis is most common...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Tuberculosis

...that not all types of tuberculosis are infectious. It is only the TB of lungs which spreads like common cold to other people. Couple of decades ago, TB was considered a dreaded disease, as there was no cure for it, but now TB is a fully curable, provided it can be detected in time. The modern lifestyle and the manner in which we treat our environment are stated to be the biggest reasons for the emergence of newer cases of Tuberculosis. The latest WHO report1 on the disease indicates that, there were an estimated 9.2 million new cases of TB in 2006. The danger of infection keeps growing if the disease is left untreated. The micro-bacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known as...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Tuberculosis Disease

... airborne from the person infected with TB by other person standing close to the carrier will surely make the person the new TB bacteria carrier. The belief that TB is transmittable by contact with a person's clothing, bed linens, or dishes and cooking utensils was voided of by recently-conducted research, stating that the bacteria can be acquired via direct contact (Landau, 1995). Signs and Symptoms. The most common symptom of the pulmonary tuberculosis is the persistent cough. In some cases this symptom is usually accompanied with other productive symptoms such as fever, night sweat, and weight loss. The common symptoms are often disregarded by many as usual case of cold or flu (Hopewell, 2006). It was reported, however, that only...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Immigrant Tuberculosis

... that studies of this nature would help in postulating the as yet not known causes of such persistent incidence besides the reactivation of old infections and disease spread by normal transmission. The authors include Annelies M Vos who is the first author, a PhD candidate at Erasmus MC at Rotterdam accompanied by Abraham Meima. On further research it is found that this is the first publication of Ms.Annelies whereas Abrahm Meima has done substantial work on Leprosy which could be discovered at (1) Another co-author Vivian Bos has worked on mortality in various socio-economic and ethnic groups in Netherlands. Borgdorff is associated with the KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation and has many publications regarding the etiology and epidemiology...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Tuberculosis-related stigma and social suffering using theories of embodiment and from a political economic perspective

...), or conditions like mental problems. Studies into social stigma and the social suffering of tuberculosis needs to be given sufficient importance, as they have significant implications on the affected person’s well being and also into controlling the spread of the disease, which has now demonstrated epidemic-like qualities. (3). Maybe this indifference to proper studies on the social stigma, as a result of tuberculosis and the social suffering it causes, may be due to the fact that it is often referred to as a ‘disease of poverty,’ which by implication encourages the poor to be blamed for the spread of infection, as though poverty was a life choice people made willingly and this attitude is reflected by...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Tuberculosis

... develop the full-blown disease. Nevertheless, the incidence rate is still within the high level as an estimated eight million people become infected with TB and 25% of them die annually (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease 2005). Note that the incidence rate of TB varies across countries. However, the disease is much more prevalent in developing countries than in advanced economies. To illustrate this fact, according to the WHO Report (Global Tuberculosis Control 2006), South Africa posted the highest incidence of TB with 718 cases per 100,000 people in 2004. Similarly, India reported over 1.8 million TB cases in the same period. China and Brazil also had relatively higher incidence rate with 113 cases and 64 cases...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Proposal to develop biosensor system for rapid diagnosis of infection with drug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in accident and ER in hospital

...means of controlling TB infection rates. Various drugs have been designed to effectively combat tuberculosis but still it remains one of the world’s most dreaded diseases and is a serious health problem. It potentially kills more adults than any other infectious agent. Detection of infectious pulmonary cases at early stages of infection is imperative to gain control over the bacilli and also its spread. The most prevalent method of screening Mycobacterium tuberculosis is Mantoux TB test, where an injection is given under the patient’s skin and localised reaction is observed for up to 72 hrs. The test is slow, clumsy, requires specialist laboratory facilities and is only effective for detecting advanced...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

... the more advanced tools for detecting tuberculosis (2006). Two commercial kits are available for detecting latent TB - the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test and the T SPOT-TB test – which “detect cellular immune response by measuring IFN-γ released by T cells after stimulation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens” (Nahid et al, 2006). Another recent advance in diagnosing TB is the nuclear acid amplification (NAA) which detects genes associated with drug resistance. Nahid et al recommend these more recent diagnostic tolls because of their greater specificity, accuracy and reliability (2006). MODS trial is still the predominant testing tool in developing countries while NAA is available in developed countries (Mayo Foundation, 2009). Treatment...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Tuberculosis

...: CDC) 7 Table 1: Tuberculosis Cases, Case Rates per 100,000 Population, Deaths, and Death Rates per 100,000 Population, and Percent Change: United States, 2005 - 2011 (Source: CDC) 5 TUBERCULOSIS Assessment for Problem Identification Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease caused by “Mycobacterium Tuberculosis” (Bynum, 2012), which spreads by air or by consuming infected milk or meat. Individuals who have pulmonary TB can pass on a disease to others via “droplet infection” (Bynum, 2012) when they cough, sneeze or even converse. The occurrence of TB among close relations of infectious people can be around three times greater than in the public. A person who is with the HIV has a 5 percent to 10 percent risk of developing TB annually...
15 Pages(3750 words)Term Paper

Tuberculosis in the Borough of Newham

... they have undergone, but that turned out to be false (Dye et al, 1999). Tuberculosis has become a major threat in the UK over the past decade, and, although most developed countries have achieved substantial methods to reduce the spread of this disease, rates in the UK continue to rise (The Lancet, 201, p.1431). It is mainly is concentrated in the eastern region of London, in the east and northern parts of Newham- London (bbc.com. 2013). This study is intended to discover the reason for which Tuberculosis in UK is a primary issue and the impacts and remedies of this disease (Public Health England, 2013). Rationale: Over the past 20 years, the incidence rate of tuberculosis has doubled in London, though it has remained fairly constant...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Its Symptoms and Treatment

.... Constitutional symptoms often include fever, and night sweats, asthenia, weight loss. Respiratory symptoms include cough, dyspnea and chest pain. (Clinical Practice Guideline on the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis 2010:1). Pulmonary tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Mostly tuberculosis is transmitted to individuals by respiratory droplets but some peopledevelop active tuberculosis disease after infection. The rate of progression of disease is much higher in immunocompromised individuals. According to the case study, the person is a refugee from Afghanistan. Hence the chance of causing disease is more with him. Sputum smear...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Tuberculosis

...Control (CDC), tuberculosis is one of the world’s deadliest diseases. It is recoded that one third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. In the year 2013, it is recorded that 9 million people around the world became sick with tuberculosis disease. In the same year, there were around 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. For people living with HIV, T.B is the leading killer. A total of 9,582 TB cases (a rate of 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons) were reported in the United States in 2013. Both the number of TB cases reported and the case rate decreased; this represents a 3.6% and 4.3% decline, respectively, compared to 2012. The rate of infection for...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Control of Tuberculosis

... resurgence of this infectious disease. The people who do not want to follow preventive education are the most vulnerable to risk factors. To reduce the enormous global burden and long-term goal of better control of this communicable disease, there is a need for international surveillance. The pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for tuberculosis (TB). The person carrying the dormant tuberculosis germs is prone to tuberculosis, if they become active and multiply. The dormant state of infection in the body is refereed as ‘latent TB infection’ (O’Donoghue 2006). Then, the infection can be easily transferred to the other person in contact with the individual carrying the disease. This is an airborne disease and people exposed...
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Paper

Control of Tuberculosis in the United States

...esenting the largest population of TB sufferers. Asians and African-Americans represent the second highest population with 26% each. Asians born outside the U.S. account for 43% of TB cases in the US; and overall, about 81% of TB sufferers are born outside the United States (Centers for Disease Control, 2007, p. 3). TB is an important problem in the United States and comparing previous annual figures on TB, cases are continuing to increase annually. It implies a need for US health authorities to re-evaluate the TB control and management programs in the U.S. to make them more responsive to this growing problem. Tuberculosis in the United States is transmitted through close contact with an active TB patient. Contact with a...
13 Pages(3250 words)Research Paper

The Biological Threat of Tuberculosis and a Challenge for the Public Health

... in the United States from 1985 to 1992. HIV and Tuberculosis have also been found out to be related as it is seen in many cases that individuals have both HIV and tuberculosis together (Ferguson & Roads 2009; Robbins et al 2005). The most common reason for the occurrence of tuberculosis is over crowdedness and sanitary problems. It is a disease which is most prevalent in the lower class society as they are more susceptible to unhygienic living. The bacterium M.Tuberculosis is the most common strain which affects the human beings with Tuberculosis in the United States. This bacterium affects the immunity of a normal individual by directly acting on the Cell Mediated Immunity. The bacterium enters the macrophages which are white blood cells...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

Tuberculosis as a Serious Disease

...consumption. This term Phthisis was identified and used by Hippocrates, a Greek physical around 460 B.C. He described the disease as the most widespread at the time and that it was fatal (Brosch et al., 2002). In the 18th and 19th centuries, TB reached epidemic levels in North America and Europe a situation that earned it the name “Captain”. Arguably, tuberculosis has claimed more lives in the known history of humanity than any other disease. Scientific advances concerning TB began in the seventeenth century where medical journals explained the Pathological and Anatomical aspects of the disease (Gibbons, 2001). Shortly after, scientists discovered the pathogen that causes TB and the development of new medication....
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

Bovine Tuberculosis, Anthelmintic Treatment, Worms and their Effect on the Immune Response to other Pathogens

If a dairy farmer suspects that there are positive TB infection cases in his or her herd, they can conduct a Single intra-dermal Comparative Cervical Tuberculin (SICCT) test to diagnose suspected cases. The SICCT test measures a delayed mode hypersensitivity response to the tuberculin antigen, Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) and is dependent on functional antigen-specific. However, use of SICCT test does not produce confidence levels required to ascertain the success of the tests. The diagnostic sensitivity of the SICCT test is estimated to be between 52-100% with a median value of 80% using the standard interpretation of the test. Factors attributed to the inaccuracy, and the poor sensitivity of the test include among many; the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Tuberculosis for FREE!

Contact Us