DNA Practical - Lab Report Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
DNA is the genetic material responsible for the development of all forms of life. It is found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast (in plant cells). In nucleus, DNA is associated with the histone proteins and is linear in shape whereas in organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts, DNA is circular and is not associated with histone protein…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.4% of users find it useful
DNA Practical
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "DNA Practical"

Download file to see previous pages One purine pair with one Pyrimidine with hydrogen bond to make the double stranded DNA. Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) with double H-bond and Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C) through triple H-bond.
Isolation procedure requires disruption of cells so that the cell content comes out, followed by sedimentation of the cellular debris on application of centrifugal force and to collect the DNA from the supernatant. These DNA fragments are separated using gel electrophoresis. The process encompasses separation, based on their size, the pore size of the gel, the voltage gradient applied and the salt concentration of the buffer. Larger pore size is for the separation of fragments larger than 500- 1000 bp and smaller pore of agarose gels are used to resolve fragments smaller than 1000 bps and can be visualized. The technique of electrophoresis is based on the fact that since DNA contains phosphate group, it is negatively charged at the neutral pH. When electric potential is applied, it moves towards the positive terminal.
The solidified agarose gel is inserted into the electrophoresis chamber and is just covered with buffer. The DNA sample is mixed with the loading buffer and then pipette in the sample wells. On application of the current DNA migrates towards positive (red colored) electrode. The distance DNA has migrated in the gel can be judged by visually monitoring migration of the tracking dyes. After adequate migration, DNA fragments are visualized by ethidium bromide. This is a fluorescent dye and it intercalates between the bases of DNA and RNA. It is incorporated in the gel so that staining occurs during electrophoresis. Bands appear on the gel and can be visualized.
Results:
Part 1
A fluffy white layer was formed at the boundary between the green and the purple liquids when the ethanol was added. It was made up of fine filaments.
Part 2
After putting the electrical current, strands of the DNA become visible to the naked eye. It becomes like stains, or bands, on the gel.
Discussion
NaCl removes protein and carbohydrate in DNA and also act as lysing buffer. NaCl contains Na+ which binds with the negatively charged phosphate molecule of the DNA. It also stabilizes the pH and process the density of DNA. Washing liquid reduces the acidity of solution and remove CO2.
Detergents remove the interfering cells and are used as a substitute for the chemical compound that is capable of damaging the cell wall and membrane. They act as emulsifying agents and can digest compound that causes stiffness of polymeric cells.
Endiamin tetra ethyl acetate (EDTA) serves to remove the Mg+2 ion and proven enzymes which can damage cellular DNA, it protects the DNA from DNAse. It interrupts the interaction of polar cell membrane and unites as detergent.
Gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for the separation of macromolecules with different sizes and charges. DNA molecules have an essentially constant charge per unit mass thus they separate in agarose, based on the size, smaller the size more distance it can travel and larger the size of the DNA less it can travel. Increasing the concentration of a gel reduces the migration speed and enables separation of smaller DNA molecules. The ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“DNA Practical Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
DNA Practical Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1532930-dna-practical
(DNA Practical Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
DNA Practical Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1532930-dna-practical.
“DNA Practical Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1532930-dna-practical.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF DNA Practical

DNA

...chromatids separate, producing haploid cells with unreplicated chromosomes. Ideally, 4 daughter cells are produced per meiosis of a –gonium, and this is what happens in the production of sperm cells. However, in the case of female gamete formation, 2 daughter cells (1 from meiosis I and 1 from meiosis II), only 1 oocyte is produced from a cycle of meiosis (Campbell and Reece, 2002). DNA replication occurs in preparation for cell division How does DNA replicate? A part of the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) unwinds, allowing DNA polymerase and DNA ligase to get into what is known as the replication bubble. The DNA polymerase adds the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Practical report on DNA Extraction Biological Science

...the individual, its characters and genetic background. There are many protocols of DNA extraction from an organism. Advanced techniques are needed to isolate DNA in a more pure form and require sophisticated equipment and specific chemicals. However, all these methods are based on three basic steps; i.e. separation and opening of cells chemically or mechanically to release DNA, purify DNA by removing proteins and other cell debris and finally, precipitation of DNA using an alcohol (Hoyle, 2011). If these basic steps are practiced, it should be possible to isolate DNA by following simple means and hence the objective of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

DNA

...? The Unique Qualities of Blood, DNA, and Mitochondrial DNA Your The scene is so common its almost cliche: the courtroom drama climaxing with the identification of the killer by irrefutable DNA samples presented in court; yet what are these samples actually made of, and how do lab technicians utilize the unique qualities of human tissue to make specific identifications? The answer lies in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and its unique composition. Like a fingerprint, each person has a unique DNA sequence that contributes to their individuality (NIH). DNA then goes on to encode for unique proteins that act as markers in the blood, which help lab technicians make specific identifications (NIH). Similarly, mitochondrial DNA can be used... as a...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

DNA

... DNA: The Basis of Life The question of “What is life, and what is it made of” has been asked to the point of making it cliche,if not ubiquitous, yet a multitude of answers persist. Life could be defined as a potential, as a response to external stimuli, or even as an indefinable feeling, yet none of these answers attempts to solve the question of what actually drives the biological engine of our bodies that keeps us breathing, pumping blood, and absorbing food. On April 25th, 1953, the now famous scientific pair of Watson and Crick attempted to finally answer this question (Fredholm). They claimed that an elegant molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, was the “God Molecule”, the blueprint for every protein in our body... (and the...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Practical

...? Practical Report on Children and Young People’s Self Identity Children and young people exhibit differences in the way they behave and how they relate with other people, which constitute their personality and individual character traits. This largely involves how children develop a sense of identity in the way they see themselves and how other people view them. This sense of identity develops and changes through a period of time along their childhood. Every person has a unique gradual development of a sense of autonomous and individuality which is relatively different from other people. This concerns the child’s social behavior and his own view about how people relate with him or her depending on the expectations of...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Practical

...? Practical: Examining 6 to 12 Year Old Children’s Understanding of Why Some Objects Float and Others Sink This study tried to explore how children of different ages explain why some objects float while others sink. Data was collected from two female participants between the ages of 6 - 12 years who studied in the same school via a video-recorded session with a researcher. Each child was shown a number of items and asked to predict whether it would float or sink and to provide explanations. They were also challenged on inconsistencies. It was found that children did indeed try to develop a consistent theory for why some objects float and others sink, and that maturity was associated with more complex explanations. The involvement... Practical:...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

DNA Mutations

...Mutation is the process that involves the change or damage of a DNA to extend so as to alter the genetic setup of that gene (Blamire ,2000). The relationship between genes and DNA are best understood by mutation studies. The effects of large deletions and arrangement in a segment of DNA may result in the loss or gain of a gene or so a function. Resultantly the mRNA transcribed from that particular changed or damaged gene will carry an entirely different genetic message (Blamire ,2000). The polypeptide created as a result of the translation of the changed mRNA will carry a different sequence of amino acids. The function of the protein made by this polypeptide will be changed or lost as...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

DNA

...& how it works. London: Academic Press. “DNA History: The Race to Solve the Mystery the Structure of DNA”. (2004). University of Delaware. Retrieved from http://www.ceoe.udel.edu/extreme2004/genomics/dnahistory.html Suryanarayana, C. (1998). X-Ray Diffraction: A practical approach. New York, NY: Plenum Press. Hallick, R. (1995). Introduction to DNA Structure. Biology Learning Center at the University of Arizona. Retrieved from http://www.blc.arizona.edu/molecular_graphics/dna_structure/dna_tutorial.html Yakovchuk, P.; Protozanova, E.; and Frank-Kamenetskii, M.D. (2006) Base-stacking and Base-pairing Contributions into Thermal Stability of the DNA Double...
3 Pages(750 words)Term Paper

DNA

...DNA and protein Database assignment Part 1) Nucleotide numbers constituting the coding sequence of: E1 alpha: NM_000284.3  3390 E1 beta: NM_000925.3  1544 (2) Number of exons and introns present in the genomic sequence of: E1 alpha: NM_000284.3  Exons = 11 Introns = 10 E1 beta: NM_000925.3  Exons = 10 Introns = 9 (3) E1 Beta sequence – BLAST results (Description of three sequences with highest homology): Name Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta (PDHB) Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta (PDHB) Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta (PDHB) Accession number NM_001131433.1 NM_001246418.1 NM_001195394.1 Organism Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan) Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee) Macaca mulatta (Rhesus...
3 Pages(750 words)Coursework

Practical

................................................................................................................................................10 Task 3.............................................................................................................................................11 Syntax used to create Data.............................................................................................................12 References......................................................................................................................................14 Introduction The project is the practical steps that lead to the design and implementation of an oracle database for a company called The Concert...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Lab Report on topic DNA Practical for FREE!

Contact Us