Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Determination of Water Hardness - Lab Report Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Purpose: The objectives of this experiment are to acquire knowledge about the concept of water hardness, utilize as well as harness skills attained in the last experiment, and determine the hardness of ones local water supply. Surface water will be studied thoroughly extract information about its hardness…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.5% of users find it useful
Determination of Water Hardness
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Determination of Water Hardness"

Determination of Water Hardness Purpose: The objectives of this experiment are to acquire knowledge about the concept of water hardness, utilize as well as harness skills attained in the last experiment, and determine the hardness of ones local water supply. Surface water will be studied thoroughly extract information about its hardness. The level of hardness is determined by the amount of magnesium and calcium ions found in the water.
Procedure: I will use 1 drop buffer solution to 10 drops of distilled water along with calmagite indicator. The fusion of these substances will make the substance blue. Then I will analyze a liquid knowing its hardness. After that, I will repeat it again to determine the unknown hardness of another solution.
Hardness rating
Concentration of Calcium Carbonate (mg/L)
Concentration of Calcium Carbonate
(grains/US gallon)
0 to Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Determination of Water Hardness Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Determination of Water Hardness Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Determination of Water Hardness Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Determination of Water Hardness Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Determination of Water Hardness Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Determination of Water Hardness

Determination of Exchange Rate

...? Determination of Exchange Rate History of Exchange Rates As d by Bagella et al (2006, p.1151), the choice of policiesof exchange rates was not so vexing sometimes back. In modern period, the selection of an exchange rate policy that suits a country is vital since though the selection of the policy is convenience based given application of international rules and regulations. Exchange rates policy dates back many years. As noted by Lau (n.d., p. 2), in 1867, the Trans-Atlantic cable was the only electronic link between Europe and North America. In this period, four fuzzy edges characterized the international monetary experience. The initial period was 1870 to 1914 where most countries adopted the gold standard where gold was used...
16 Pages(4000 words)Coursework

Water, Water Everywhere

... as it constantly passes over the rock and the soil. This soil erosion at the base over time results in the creation of a valley. The base levels of the erosion are classified into ultimate or temporary levels. It is the changes that occur at the base level that are responsible for determining whether the water flow will find new pathways and thereby generate new water systems. The lower the base level the resultant force of water flow will be a sharp edge, resulting in a down cut in the land formation. A raise in the level of water flowing will however result in soil deposition within the system of the flow of water that will lead to a new body of water or the generation of a new water system. It is the combination of all these actions...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The Scale of Hardness by Rockwell Scale

The scale of hardness by Rockwell scale
Hardness refers to a measure of the extent of resistance for a solid matter towards different types of permanent shapes whenever some amount of force is applied to the solid matter. The macroscopic hardness is hardness with intermolecular bonds that are strong. It occurs whenever the character of the solid matter under force appears to be complex. In this respect, there are a variety hardness measurements. These include indentation hardness, scratch hardness, and rebound hardness. Hardness does not depend on elastic stiffness, ductility, strength, strain, plasticity, toughness, viscosity, and viscoelasticity (Anyalebechi 1). In order to understand the hardness of different materials, an...
5 Pages(1250 words)Lab Report

Rockwell Hardness Testing

...Analysis of strength of connecting rods Objective & significance To design and perform an experiment to determine if the failures were caused by a material flaw in the rods. The strength of rod found from experiment is used to compare with the base line strength required for connecting rod of engines. Type of experiment :- Rockwell hardness testing machine is used to determine the ultimate tensile strength. Major result :- The major result will be to determine ultimate tensile strength of the connecting rods from the test and compare them with rods that have failed and rods that have not failed. Conclusion :- Results will be used to conclude whether rods have failed because of less tensile strength. OBJECTIVE & INTRODUCTION Objective...
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report

Gene Determination

...Gene Determination Q1. Birth defect of the sex organs (Genital Birth Defects) that result in a problem with assigning a definite sex to a newborn child is known as Ambiguous Genitalia or Atypical Genitalia (Committee on Genetics, 2000, Birth Defects, 2005). This condition is said to occur in about one in every 3,000 live births and is characterized by the presence of either a combination of male and female external genitalia or an external genitalia that cannot be clearly assigned to a gender (Birth Defects, 2005). To properly understand the occurrence and causes of this condition, a clear understanding of the normal genetic and hormonal influences that interplay in genital formation and development is important (Committee on Genetics...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Default Determination

This paper thus is going to handle and talk about the termination by default or default termination to every detail while analyzing everything that it entails, as well as the remedy of default termination in the context of federal procurement in reference to the nature of the course.
In termination for default, the government always wants to have the upper hand on the contract hence always trying to make sure that the contract is always to their advantage. So in that case, in order for the government to prevail in the defense of a termination by default, the government must establish that the termination of the contract by default prior to the contract completion date was effective, proper and correct. Since this default termi...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper

Water level determination, measurement and datums

... Institute: Water level determination, measurement and datums Introduction The concept of sea surveying improved in this recent age and opened the scope to analyse varied types of changes taking place due to the influence of the level of water, geological changes, power of ice caps etc. However, due to these above mentioned changes, the threat of global warming is increasing in this age that hampered the general life style of people in the society. Therefore, in order to reduce the negative impacts of such disorders, sea surveyors are offering high concentration over the concept of sea or water level measurements, marine navigation with the help of tidal datums, glaciers, ice caps etc. Moreover, by performing all these activities...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Income determination

...Income Determination Problem ment Income distribution and disparity poses escalating challenges to regional development basedon uneven distribution of economic resources. In essence there exist a variety of loose ends based on limited evidences directly linking macroeconomic and microeconomic factors to income disparity despite its associated critical policy implications. Regional imbalances have been reported amongst different countries. Many policy makers in the respective countries are thus, disturbed by an urgent need to establish and implement working models upon which income determination can be framed. Consequently, this topic has become attractive making many researchers to shift attention towards the same as a vital...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Proposal

Income determination

...RESEARCH PROPOSAL, MACRO & MICRO ECONOMICS; RESEARCH METHODS IN ECONOMICS (INCOME DETERMINATION) Greenawalt and Sinkey in their research tests the income-smoothing hypothesis among 106 large banks for a period of eight years (1976-1984).1 The study intends to find the effect of bank provision for loan losses as a fraction of company’s income. Moreover, the study also intends to find other business conditions that affect bank’s loan portfolio. The author report that there is evidence of income smoothening effect over the study period. Greenawalt and Sinkey effort add important knowledge to the operation of banking services on the noninterest products.2 Though there has no other research on the study of income smoothening Greenawalt...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Sex Determination and Development

...Sex Determination and Development Summary Genetics and Society 12-8 Sali Aljehani   Sex Determination and Development Sex determination and development starts from the smallest building organism which is known as the cells. These are basic building blocks that are in trillions in the body and form the basis of body organs and human structure. Among the cell structure is the existence of chromosomes which forms human body nucleus. In them is the sex chromosomes which are paired into X and Y or Y and Y and are the determinant of the child’s sex depending on their combination after intercourse. The development and determination of sex in mammals occurs precisely during the fertilization of the ovary by the sperm. The same pair of chromosomes...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

The Quality Of Water in Our Ecological System

The first article is titled ‘Water quality report targets phosphorus’ and it has been written by Susan Milton for the Cape Cod Times. It is a recent article since it first appeared in the month of August 2007 and there are several implied messages in the article itself. The first one which comes across directly within the title is the idea that phosphorus can hurt the quality of water in a region and the writer is quick to note that, “If you want an easy way to help the environment, use a phosphorus-free dishwashing detergent (Milton, 2007, Pg. 1)”.

It is indeed quite successful in passing on this message because the readers are given results of a scientific study which shows that chemicals such...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Different Models of Exchange Rate Determination and Their Empirical Support

Specifically, some of the discussed models of exchange rate determination are the balance of payment approach model, the monetarist or asset approach model, and the martingale-random walk model. Moreover, the paper will also integrate the experiential observations and examples during the paper, in order to understand the practicality of these models.

Under the balance of payment approach, the domestic cost of foreign currency is established like the cost of any other article of trade. In other words, the market demand and supply curvatures are intersected in the exchange market for that particular foreign currency. The modeling of the abovementioned approach related to the demand and supply for foreign exchange is quite...
13 Pages(3250 words)Term Paper

Provisions for Gas, Electricity, and Water Markets

...Gas, Electri and Water Competition Thirty years ago, the consensus was that network utilities, such as gas, electri and water were essentially natural monopolies where competition was neither feasible nor desirable therefore they were regarded as public sector. However the consensus has changed.Competition is generally seen to be possible and desirable in such utilities therefore regulators now have all primary duties to promote competition. From a regulator`s point of view, it is crucial to have a clear view of what a competitive market is and what can be done, in the real world, to establish the conditions that will allow such a market to emerge. Traditional vs. New Approach The traditional regulation relied on static concept...
9 Pages(2250 words)Report

Franklin D. Roosevelt a Man of Determination

...A man of determination and self-confidence, Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted that every citizen in the world live in freedom – freedom from fear, freedomfrom want, freedom of the way they want to worship God and freedom of speech and expression. While he strived to bring America out of the Great Depression, Roosevelt helped the people to gain faith in themselves. He was more of a guide to the people than a mere political leader. He maintained his promise of prompt and vigorous action and even though he was initially misunderstood, he did manage to bring recovery to business and agriculture, and even to the unemployed. He was a dedicated leader and served the nation without any selfish motives. He believed that the wealthy should be taxed...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

The Problem of Surface Water Acidification

The marked effort by authorities and environmental agencies to contain this phenomenon on its detrimental effect on clean water and agricultural products, the main concern is that these pollutants are also impacting negatively on the bird populations and other aquatic forms (Haliwell et al, 456).
There has nonetheless been a significant decline in acidic levels on the surface waters since their peak levels in the late 1970s on a number of areas within the United Kingdom, especially in sulphuric acidity. This has been credited to local and international policy regulations and legislations e.g. the Convention of Long-Range Trans-boundary Air Pollution and the European Union. They include the Gothenburg Protocol of 1999, th...
11 Pages(2750 words)Coursework

Kant: Self-Determination in the Age of Reason

Some types of ethical considerations come from various religions and people are supposed to measure their actions based on what a particular faith sees as right or wrong. Another type of ethical consideration says that something is "right" if it brings about pleasure to the individual or to a collective society (Hull 2). In individualistic theories, the individual only seeks their own good and does not think about anyone else (Hull 3). There are many different ways that people think about life and everyone has an opinion about what to do in any situation.

The study of ethics is important because it helps to make meaning out of life. Everyone wants to know why they are on this planet and what they are supposed to do. Ri...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

The Issue of Water Pollution

Researchers use the following classification for water pollution: (1) Putrescible materials; (2) Heated effluents; (3) Inert materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Radioactive elements and compounds. Water pollution should be controlled by every state and society as it influences air, water, and natural resources and changes the global climate system/ Industrial use of water began to affect the quality of water in developed and developing countries. A waterwheel that supplied the power for grinding grain did no harm to a millstream; but as the industry began to use great quantities of water to process materials and flush away wastes, even greater pollution than sewage came into being. Sawmills dumped sawdust into rivers and killed of...
7 Pages(1750 words)Article

Solutions for Renewable Water Sources in Desert Regions of the World

...Solutions for Renewable Water Sources in Desert Regions of the World of the of the Solutions for Renewable Water Sources in Desert Regions of the World Water is the most vital resource that is significant for life to sustain in the world. Majority of the living organism have higher ration of water in their bodies and thus require water more than any other food resource. By mass, humans have about 60% content of water. In the similar way, economy, wildlife, culture, etc are noting without mush resources of water. Water scarcity is increasing and there should be sustainable solution to provide water for the urban as well as rural regions. Desert Regions have less sources of renewable water and Green solutions have the capability to provide...
9 Pages(2250 words)Research Paper

Two Water Provision Methods in Saudi Arabia

... Report on Comparison of Two Water Provision Methods in Saudi Arabia 0 Introduction The availability of wateris essential to the sustainable social and economic development in any country. The scarcity of water nowadays is becoming a global issue in the society in both the developing and developing countries. Water scarcity is defined as the condition whereby the provision of water cannot match the demand. Saudi Arabia is particularly destitute of the water due to its majority of regions being arid. In an arid country like Saudi Arabia with no perennial rivers, groundwater is the main, but limited resource that can be used in residential, industrial and agricultural areas to guarantee adequate supply of water. The rapid growth...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

The Effects of Water Pollution on Child Mortality

... inserts his The effects of water pollution on child mortality rates in underdeveloped countries inserts his/her Customer inserts course name and number Professor’s name Paper due date Table of Contents No: Chapters Page No: 1. Introduction 2 2. Statistics of Child mortality due to water pollution 3 3. Background and current status of this issue in underdeveloped countries 5 4. The causes and effects of this issue 8 5. Conclusion 9 6. Works cited 11 Introduction Water pollution and child mortality are two grave issues which often subject to heated debates in modern times. Any sensible person would agree that there is the serious scarcity of the water due to global warming and certain other factors. The number...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Lab Report on topic Determination of Water Hardness for FREE!

Contact Us